Theories are formulated to explain, predict, and understand phenomena and, in many cases, to challenge and extend existing knowledge, within the limits of the critical bounding assumptions. The theoretical framework is the structure that can hold or support a theory of a research study. The theoretical framework introduces and describes the theory which explains why the research problem under study exists. Importance of Theory
A theoretical framework consists of concepts, together with their definitions, and existing theory/theories that are used for your particular study. The theoretical framework must demonstrate an understanding of theories and concepts that are relevant to the topic of your research paper and that will relate it to the broader fields of knowledge in the class you are taking. The theoretical framework is not something that is found readily available in the literature. You must review course readings and pertinent research literature for theories and analytic models that are relevant to the research problem you are investigating. The selection of a theory should depend on its appropriateness, ease of application, and explanatory power. The theoretical framework strengthens the study in the following ways. 1. An explicit statement of theoretical assumptions permits the reader to evaluate them critically. 2. The theoretical framework connects the researcher to existing knowledge. Guided by a relevant theory, you are given a basis for your hypotheses and choice of research methods. 3. Articulating the theoretical assumptions of a research study forces you to address questions of why and how. It permits you to move from simply describing a phenomenon observed to generalizing about various aspects of that phenomenon. 4. Having a theory helps you to identify the limits to those generalizations. A theoretical framework specifies which key variables influence a phenomenon of interest. It alerts you to examine how those key variables might differ and under what circumstances. By virtue of its application nature, good theory in the social sciences is of value precisely because it fulfills one primary purpose: to explain the meaning, nature, and challenges of a phenomenon, often experienced but unexplained in the world in which we live, so that we may use that knowledge and understanding to act in more informed and effective ways.
A theoretical framework is a compilation of interrelated concepts, such as a theory though not necessarily worked-out so well. A theoretical framework guides you in doing research, determining what kind of things you will measure, and what type of statistical relationships you will look out for.
A theoretical framework is a theoretical perspective of something. It can simply be a theory, but it can also be more general or a basic approach to understanding something. Typically, a theoretical framework defines the kinds of variables that you will want to look at.
A theoretical framework refers to a collection of interrelated concepts. It is like a theory but it is so well worked out. It guides one's research, determines what things one will measure and the statistical relationships one will look for.
A theoretical framework is a collection of interrelated concepts, like a theory but not necessarily so well worked-out. It guides your research, determining what things you will measure, and what statistical relationships you will look for. Theoretical frameworks are also important in exploratory studies.
Theoretical framework is a structure that is used for supporting a theory of any research work. It explains the theory of why the research is necessary. The framework helps the reader to make sense of the question that the research is founded on.
A theoretical framework is a compilation of thoughts and theories on a research topic. To write a theoretical framework, identify the core set of connectors within a topic showing how they are related to the research topic. When writing theoretical framework, include an outline of existing theories closely related to the research topic. Demonstrate that the topic addresses questions that interest those already researching the field then clarify how your research relates to the existing theories. Your own theoretical assumptions and loyalties should be as open as possible.
Why use a Theoretical Framework?
An effective history paper should do more than simply report what happened in the past. An effective history paper should also provide some analysis. Using a theoretical framework for your paper can help open up your analysis of past events by providing a particular set of questions to ask, and a particular perspective to use when examining your topic. top of page
What is a Theoretical Framework?
Theoretical frameworks provide a particular perspective, or lens, through which to examine a topic. Theoretical frameworks usually come from other disciplines - such as economics, the social sciences, and anthropology - and are used by historians to bring new dimensions of their topic to light. There is no right or wrong theoretical framework to use when examining your topic since every topic can be looked at from a number of different perspectives. For example, an essay on slavery in the American south could be examined from a social perspective - the relations between slaves, or between slaves and masters - but also from an economic perspective, a political perspective, or a cultural perspective just to name a few. Theoretical frameworks, however, are even more specific than these broad subject approaches. Theoretical frameworks are specific theories about aspects of human existence such as the functioning of politics, the economy, and human relations. These theories can then be applied to the study of actual events. While it is not necessary to use a theoretical framework to examine your topic, it can help to focus your essay on a specific aspect of your topic and can direct your analysis of that topic, offering unexpected insights into the past. top of page
Examples of Theoretical Frameworks
There is no finite list of theoretical frameworks one can apply to a topic. Nonetheless, there are several theoretical frameworks that have been used more often by historians, forming schools of thought and shared approaches to historical subject matter such as marxism, nationalism, post-colonialism, and post-modernism, just to name a few. It is important to note that these categories are fluid, and many of the theories can be classified under more than one school of thought. In addition, many historians borrow theoretical frameworks from other disciplines without actively associating themselves with a particular school of thought. Below are some examples of theoretical frameworks that have been adopted by historians in recent decades. Marxism
Many scholars use Marxist philosophy and theories to study past events. One notable theory is Italian philosopher Antonio Gramsci's theory of "cultural hegemony." Gramsci proposed that those in power maintain power by making the societal hierarchy seem "normal." Gramsci's theory has been used by many contemporary historians to analyze past events. For example, Robert Rydell has applied this theory to the study of World's Fairs, proposing that the elite of society used World's Fairs to try to sway the masses into supporting a societal order that appeared to benefit everyone, but in reality benefitted primarily the elite. This is just one example of a Marxist theory being applied to the study of history. There are many more. Nationalism
Scholars of nationalism study how and why people have come to identify themselves as being a part of a nation, as well as the impact of the rise of nationalism in the last two centuries. Benedict Anderson, for example, famously referred to nations as "imagined communities" since a nation is a community in which the vast majority of people will never actually meet face-to-face or know each other, but nonetheless share a sense of identity based on nationality. Many historians have used Anderson's theory to analyse nations and nationalism historically, while others have challenged Anderson's theory on how nations are created by examining the rise of nationalism in a variety of different historical contexts. Post-Colonialism
Post-colonialists study the power relations and racist assumptions that made the colonial system possible, as well as the legacy of colonialism for both the colonists and the colonized. Edward Said's theory of "Orientalism" proposes that the West has created a mythologized version of the East (or Orient) to reinforce the difference between the two, and the superiority of the West over the East, thus legitimizing Western attitudes towards and treatment of those in the East. Historians use Said's theory to examine past events, even those outside the strict geographic area being considered in Said's original theory. Historians examine how western countries mythologize and exoticize the "other" in order to reinforce and legitimize their position of power. American historian Erika Lee, for example, uses Said's theory to examine American attitudes (particularly those of white American women) towards China and Japan in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as the United States was developing its "informal empire" in the region through treaties and trade. Literary Theory
Historians have borrowed prolifically from cultural and literary theorists in recent decades. One notable example is Russian literary theorist Mikhail Bakhtin's theory of "carnivalesque." For Bakhtin, the "carnivalesque" referred to literature that permits a temporary inversion of the normal social hierarchy. He compares these literary productions to the medieval carnival where for the duration of the carnival normal hierarchies of power were suspended, allowing participants to mock and burlesque those in authority. Many historians have made use of Bakhtin's theory outside of the world of literature, applying it to past events,and examining how different events allowed for the temporary inversion of power. Natalie Zemon Davis, for example, examines the role of gender inversion in the popular culture of early modern France. While many historians and anthropologists have argued that the temporary inversion of power of the "carnivalesque" ultimately serve to re-inforce normal power structures, Davis argues that carnivalesque inversions can also serve to undermine them. Post-Modernism
French philosopher and historian Michel Foucault theorized that "discourses" (meaning the ways in which we speak and think about our reality or some aspect of that reality) actually structure our reality and iin most instances are used to reinforce hierarchies of power, but can also be used to subvert these same hierarchies. Historians have applied Foucault's theory to the past, examining how discourses in different times and places have been used to reinforce power. Bengali historian Dipesh Chakrabarty, for example, examines how the discourse of history in the academic world continues to place Europe at the centre of historical studies, even in the study of places outside of Europe. Gender Studies
Gender studies examines how notions of gender structure our reality. Gender studies have been influenced by post-modernism, arguing that gender is not a fixed category, but rather a social construction. Historians have used these theories to examine how the construction of gender functioned in the past, and to what end. Feminist historian Joan Scott, for example, examines how gender discourse has historically served to construct and legitimize gender hierarchies. Anthropology
Cultural anthropology is the study of human cultures and seeks to understand how and why they function as they do. Anthropologist Victor Turner examines the role of rites of passage and their cultural meaning and function. Historians have used his work to examine past events and their meaning to those who participated in them. http://dlibrary.acu.edu.au/digitaltheses/public/adt-acuvp129.17052007/03chapters_5-10.pdf http://www.studymode.com/subjects/related-local-and-foreign-studies-for-library-system-page1.html http://www.papercamp.com/group/review-of-related-foreign-studies-of-library-system/page-30 Identification
A conceptual framework is a tool researchers use to guide their inquiry; it is a set of ideas used to structure the research, a sort of map that may include the research question, the literature review, methods and data analysis. Researchers use a conceptual framework to guide their data collection and analysis. If, for example the researcher wanted to know whether boys did better than girls in a certain subject then he might look at literature on the development of both sexes, and on the methods of socialization of boys and girls as this could influence what subjects were of interest. The researcher would then look at existing literature on male and female development and socialization as this would help to clarify what questions she should ask e.g are girls more interested in history when it is concerned with actual people or do boys prefer the history of battles etc. The ways in which boys and girls viewed a subject could influence their progress in that area. Function
According to sociologists Haralambos and Holborn, a conceptual framework enables the researcher to find links between the existing literature and his own research goals. If, for example, a researcher was looking at why women stay with violent men then she might want to look at theories of identity to establish whether certain personality types are more likely to be battered and why, Sponsored Links
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According to Smyth, the researcher has to bear in mind that a conceptual framework can overly influence his thought and subsequent actions. If the researcher becomes to bound by the framework then this has to be laid out and acknowledged when he writes up their methodology. The researcher should be prepared to use more than one set of ideas to guide his research, which may mean using two or three theoretical frameworks in conjunction as Smyth eventually did. Benefits
Providing the researcher realizes that a conceptual framework will only take them so far in his analysis of the research data, it can be useful. Most research projects start with a hypothesis e.g that violent men are inadequate, the hypothesis is turned into a question and the researcher starts looking at literature on violent and non-violent men, which in turn guides the questions he will need to ask. Effects
When the researcher uses a conceptual framework as a starting point for research there comes a point when he finds that the results of his study move beyond the original question e.g. he finds that violent men are not necessarily inadequate but have little or no self esteem and the man deals with this by blaming his partner or girlfriend for making him feel that way and so he is violent. This is a clear example of research going beyond the original question and framework and adds something new to the existing body of research on violent men.
The Main Library serves the University’s students, faculty, staff, and alumni, even including outside researchers. It is organized into three major divisions: the Technical Services Division, which forms and adopts standard acquisition, cataloging and indexing policies and procedures; the Administrative Services Division, which provides support to the functional sections/units of the Library; and the User Education and Services Division, which is responsible for general book services, maintenance and preservation of the Library’s materials and computerized database applications. The building itself is composed of nine decks, but only the first four floors and the basement are more usually opened to the library users. The Basement holds the Filipiniana Section, Media Services, the Microfilm storage, the Audio-Visual Room, and the Philippine eLib Data Center, where digitized collections like UP theses, rare collections and periodicals, and digitized publications of partner government agencies can be accessed. The first floor, the Social Sciences Section, General Reference Section and most of the Electronic Resources can be found. Library users can easily familiarize themselves with the Library with the Virtual Tour (Interactive Virtual Tour Emulation/INVITE), or find the materials they need with iLib, both of which are accessible through the computer systems at the first floor lobby. The second floor contains the Microfilm Laboratory, the University Librarian’s Office, Administrative Services, Computer Services, Technical Services. Materials that can be found here are the Filipiniana Serials and Special Collections, Foreign Serials, and other specially rare books and documents kept in the Judge Guillermo Guevarra Room. There is also a red functional elevator at the Foreign Serials Section. At present, the elevator is only used for transferring books and other library holdings. The University Archives and Records Depository (UPIANA) and the School of Library and Information Sciences (SLIS) are situated in the third floor. The original statue of the Oblation, UP’s renowned symbol, greets visitors as they climb up to this floor. Students from the College of Fine Arts and the College of Architecture used to share this floor for their classes alongside SLIS students, until they had their own respective buildings. The east side of every floor from the basement to the third, and the rest of the floors from the fourth upwards contain more stacks of books. Wireless Fidelity or Wi-fi ® “hotspots” are scattered around the Library to cater to Internet users. Insert formula here iLib and OPAC Systems
Library users now enjoy the benefits of the Computerized Library System employed by the Main Library. The UP Integrated Library System (iLib) a web-based system using Open Source technologies, which integrates all library processes, is accessible, user-friendly and can be remotely managed. A selected committee started developing iLib on July 15, 200. It was first tested on June 09, 2007 in the library units of UP Diliman, and became fully operational by 11 February 2008. UP Students’ ID serve as their library cards when borrowing from the library. The iLib is now copyrighted, being issued a Certificate of Copyright Registration and Deposit by the NCCA of The National Library on July 16, 2008. Electronic journals and other databases can also be accessed through iLib and OPAC modules. Artworks in the Library
Aside from its books and other resource materials, the Library also stores and displays a great treasury of artworks. The University logo is perched on the entrance doors of the Library. Each room contains various paintings and portraits of former administrators and other significant people in history; some pieces were even created by National Artists and eminent names in the Philippines’ artists circles. A small gallery can be found in the second floor, containing a few artworks. In the room for Foreign Serials at the third floor, several busts of national figures and heroes are displayed. Most of the University Library Collection is now relocated to the University Heritage Museum, or the Bulwagan ng Dangal.
Birth of the modern National Library (1900-1941)
The Legislative Building on Padre Burgos Street in Ermita would serve as the National Library's home from 1928 to 1944. As the Philippine-American War died down and peace gradually returned to the Philippines, Americans who had come to settle in the islands saw the need for a wholesome recreational outlet. Recognizing this need, Mrs. Charles Greenleaf and several other American women organized the American Circulating Library (ACL), dedicated in memory of American soldiers who died in the Philippine-American War. The ACL opened on March 9, 1900 with 1,000 volumes donated by the Red Cross Society of California and other American organizations. By 1901, the ACL's collection grew to 10,000 volumes, consisting mostly of American works of fiction, periodicals and newspapers. The rapid expansion of the library proved to be such a strain on the resources of the American Circulating Library Association of Manila, the organization running the ACL, that it was decided that the library's entire collection should be donated to the government. The Philippine Commission formalized the acceptance of the ACL's collections on March 5, 1901 through Act No. 96, today observed as the birthdate of both the National Library and the Philippine public library system. With the ACL now a Philippine government institution, a board of trustees and three personnel, led by librarian Nelly Y. Egbert, were appointed by the colonial government. At the same time, the library moved to Rosario Street (now Quintin Paredes Street) in Binondo before its expansion warranted its move to the Hotel de Oriente in the same district in 1904. It was noted in the 1905 annual report of the Department of Public Instruction (the currentDepartment of Education) that the new location "was not exactly spacious but at least it was comfortable and accessible by tramway from almost every part of the city". At the same time, the ACL, acting on its mandate to make its collections available to American servicemen stationed in the Philippines, established five traveling libraries, serving various, if not unusual, clientele across the islands.In November 1905, Act No. 1407 placed the library under the Bureau of Education and subsequently moved to its headquarters at the corner of Cabildo (now Muralla) and Recoletos Streets in Intramuros, on which today the offices of the Manila Bulletin stand. On June 2, 1908, Act No. 1849 was passed, mandating the consolidation of all government libraries in the Philippines into the ACL. Subsequently, Act No. 1935 was passed in 1909, renaming the ACL the Philippine Library and turning it into an autonomous body governed by a five-member Library Board. At the same time, the Act mandated the division of the library into four divisions: the law, scientific, circulating and Filipiniana divisions. The newly renamed library was headed by James Alexander Robertson, an American scholar who, in collaboration with Emma Helen Blair, wrote The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898, and recognized today as both the first director of the modern National Library and the father of Philippine library science. Robertson would later abolish the library's subscription fees for books in general circulation in 1914. Act No. 2572, passed on January 31, 1916, merged the Philippine Library with two other government institutions: the Division of Archives, Patents, Copyrights and Trademarks (later to become the National Archives, the Copyright Office of the National Library and the Intellectual Property Office) and the Law Library of the Philippine Assembly, forming the Philippine Library and Museum. In addition, the Philippine Library and Museum was placed under the supervision of the Department of Justice. However, on December 7, 1928, Act No. 3477 was passed, splitting the Philippine Library and Museum into the National Library and the National Museum (now the National Museum of the Philippines). The newly formed National Library was placed under the supervision of the Philippine Assembly, subsequently moving to the Legislative Building on Padre Burgos Street in Ermita. This arrangement continued with the convocation of the National Assembly at the dawn of the Commonwealth era in 1935. However, supervision of the National Library would return to the Department of Public Instruction in 1936.
Facsimile copies of Noli Me Tangere andEl filibusterismo are displayed at the Filipiniana Division's reading room. The original copies are kept in a special double-combination vault at the room's rare documents section. The collections of the National Library of the Philippines consist of more than 210,000 books; over 880,000 manuscripts, all part of the Filipiniana Division; more than 170,000 newspaper issues from Metro Manila and across the Philippines; some 66,000 theses and dissertations; 104,000 government publications; 3,800 maps and 53,000 photographs. The library's collections include large numbers of materials stored on various forms of non-print media, as well as almost 18,000 pieces for use of the Library for the Blind Division. Overall, the National Library has over 1.6 million pieces in its collections, one of the largest among Philippine libraries. Accounted in its collections include valuable Rizaliana pieces, four incunabula, the original manuscript of Lupang Hinirang (the National Anthem), several sets of The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898, a collection of rare Filipiniana books previously owned by Tabacalera (the Spanish tobacco monopoly), and the documents of five Philippine Presidents. The most prized possessions of the National Library, which include Rizal'sNoli Me Tangere, El Filibusterismo and Mi último adiós, three of his unfinished novels and the Philippine Declaration of Independence, are kept in a special double-combination vault at the rare documents section of the Filipiniana Division's reading room. A significant portion of the National Library's collections are composed of donations and works obtained through both legal deposit and copyright deposit due to the limited budget allocated for the purchase of library materials; the 2007 national budget allocation for the library allocated less than ten million pesos for the purchase of new books. The library also relies on its various donors and exchange partners, which numbered 115 in 2007, for expanding and diversifying its collections. The lack of a sufficient budget has affected the quality of the library's offerings: the Library for the Blind suffers from a shortage of books printed in braille, while the manuscripts of Rizal's masterpieces have reportedly deteriorated due to the lack of funds to support 24-hour air conditioning to aid in its preservation.
Review of Related Literature of Library System
Now a days, in a highly technological society, human productivity is made more efficient through the development of electronic gadgets. Now, with the advent of such modernization in education, one way to globalize the process of research is to realized that technology is advancing at an incredibly fast pace. Computers are not confined to being used for entertainment but its role in education is also vast. Library is derived from the old French “libraries” which means “a collection of book”. Reading material in a school are stored in libraries. Library is place in which books and related materials are kept for use but not for sale. It is also organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution or a private individual. In addition, it is a place in which we get information in any format and from many sources. The librarian has to keep the room neat so that it is conducive for learning. The librarian is also the person who is liable for monitoring all the books that are borrowed and returned by the borrowers.
Examensarbete / Thesis:
Usability Evaluation of Digital Library BTH a case study
University essay from Blekinge Tekniska Högskola/COM
The Blekinge Institute of Technology (Swedish: Blekinge Tekniska Högskola) (BTH) is a public, state funded Swedish Institute of technology in Blekinge with more than 8,000 students (part-time, full-time) and offers 350 courses in 40 educational programmes in five schools at two campuses located in Karlskrona and Karlshamn. The institute focuses on applied information technology and sustainable development; additionally also offers programs in management, economy, health, planning, social science and the humanities. Blekinge Institute of Technology is located in the Telecom City area and works closely together with many telecommunications and software companies including Telenor, Ericsson AB and Wireless Independent Provider (WIP). CHAPTER I
Technologies are important and helpful in everyone’s life. Computers help people to do such things or tasks easily and faster. Technology has a systematic and organized way of keeping data records, computing numbers, accomplishing a lot of transactions and reports. A system of a library is made to have a fast process of transactions for searching book titles, borrowing books, returning books, computing penalties and generating an accurate report.
Aguilar Catholic School, High school department is located at Poblacion Aguilar, Pangasinan. It is a religious school and the religion of all the students and staffs is Roman Catholic and their library is open for them. It has a collection of books, magazines, journals, dictionaries, encyclopedias and other reading materials. The library is still using a card catalogues in searching books and the librarian is still using manual transaction for borrowing, returning and generating reports.
Using a manual process is a hard work and because of it the librarian is having a problem to serve each students and faculties who wish to use the library.
Aguilar Catholic School is using a record book to track borrowed books from the library. The librarian will write down the book being borrowed, borrower, book information, date borrowed and the date returned. A penalty is given to the borrower if he/she loses the book; the due date of returning of the book has ended. The penalty for losing a book depends on the amount of the book and if the borrower returned the book after its due date the penalty is 10 pesos. The proponent observed a lot of errors occurring in their manual system. The librarian is having difficulty working in the library and the borrowers are having difficulty in searching the book.
Now, in our society all over the world technology is the most important advancement, a necessity in bringing about progress as we move along in this computerized world. These changes in effectmake man’s life easier and more convenient. The relationship between the library and computer is constantly changing that the use of computer contributes to the way man learns and communicates. It easy in this world to strive for changes and since library is no different from any firm and institution, considering the use of computer to perform a given task will be efficient.The fast phased of technology attributed a lot to the improvementof the library system. Technology enabled software developers to computerize the librarysystem. The automated library system helped the academe greatly. Library, transactionsand queries can be created in a single click. Traditionally, library systems are implemented manually. Forms are given to librarian and they fill them of using pens. Computerized library system identifies the modern process of technology, on how it works quickly for the students and librarian. Pagadian Capitol College, base on the library system, the librarian and the library users still use the manual way of transacting of borrowing and returning of books. In the system we are going to make the manual library system into automated and computerized one. The manual library system is very costly, time consuming and tedious. Hence, computerized library system, the librarian can easily find the books of the student that they are looking for without going through the traditional way of searching a library material. And for the students, it can lessen the time and effort needed by them of the library. The implementation of the system will reduce the time and effort of the users in terms of adding, editing, searching, deleting and printing of records. The system can also help in reducing the expenses of the library such as papers, folders, pens and other materials needed...