Privatization, also spelled privatisation, may have several meanings. Primarily, it is the process of transferring ownership of a business, enterprise, agency, public service or public property from the public sector (a government) to the private sector, either to a business that operate for a profit or to a non-profit organization. It may also mean government outsourcing of services or functions to private firms, e.g. revenue collection, law enforcement, and prison management. Privatization has also been used to describe two unrelated transactions. The first is the buying of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by a single entity, taking the company private. This is often described as private equity. The second is a demutualization of a mutual organization or cooperative to form a joint stock company.
The following are the primary objectives which have been defined in the Government’s policy statement on Parastatal Sector Reform: Improve the operational efficiency of enterprises that are currently in the Parastatal sector, and their contribution to the national economy; Reduce the burden of Parastatal enterprises on the Government budget; Expand the role of the private sector in the economy, permitting the Government to concentrate public resources on its role as provider of basic public services, including health, education and social infrastructure; and Encourage wider participation by the people in the ownership and management of business. Secondary Objectives:
In so far as their pursuit is consistent with the primary objectives, the CHC intends to ensure that divestiture meets the following secondary objectives: to create a more market-oriented economy;
to secure enhanced assess to foreign markets, to capital and to technology; to promote the development of the capital market; and
to preserve the goal of self-reliance.
There are four main methods of privatization: 1. Share issue privatization (SIP) - selling shares on the stock market 2. Asset sale privatization - selling an entire organization (or part of it) to a strategic investor, usually by auction or by using the Treuhand model 3. Voucher privatization - distributing shares of ownership to all citizens, usually for free or at a very low price. 4. Privatization from below - Start-up of new private businesses in formerly socialist countries. Choice of sale method is influenced by the capital market, political, and firm-specific factors. SIPs are more likely to be used when capital markets are less developed and there is lower income inequality. Share issues can broaden and deepen domestic capital markets, boosting liquidity and (potentially) economic growth, but if the capital markets are insufficiently developed it may be difficult to find enough buyers, and transaction costs (e.g. underpricing required) may be higher. For this reason, many governments elect for listings in the more developed and liquid markets, for example Euronext, and the London, New York and Hong Kong stock exchanges. Secured borrowing
Some privatization transactions can be interpreted as a form of a secured loan and are criticized as a "particularly noxious form of governmental debt". In this interpretation, the upfront payment from the privatization sale corresponds to the principal amount of the loan, while the proceeds from the underlying asset correspond to secured interest payments – the transaction can be considered substantively the same as a secured loan, though it is structured as a sale. This interpretation is particularly argued to apply to recent municipal transactions in the United States, particularly for fixed term, such as the 2008 sale of the proceeds from Chicago parking meters for 75 years. It is argued that this is motivated by "politicians' desires to borrow money surreptitiously", due to legal restrictions on and political resistance to alternative sources of revenue,...
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