MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE OF UKRAINE
Kyiv National Linguistic University
in Comparative Lexicology of the English and Ukrainian Languages Lecture 1. COMPARATIVE LEXICOLOGY IN THE SYSTEMIC STRUCTURE OF LANGUAGE Kulyk AnastasiiaGroup ПА09-12
V. G. NikonovaProfessor, Doctor of Philology
Kyiv 2014 PLAN
1. DIFFERENT TIPES OF LEXICOLOGY: GENERAL AND SPECIAL, HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE, CONTRASTIVE AND COMPARATIVE LEXICOLOGY 2. THE THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL VALUE OF LEXICOLOGY3. THE CONNECTION OF LEXICOLOGY WITH PHONETICS, STYLISTICS, GRAMMAR AND OTHER BRANCHES OF LINGUISTICS
Lexicology is a branch of linguistics – the science of language. The term “lexicology” is composed of two Greek morphemes “lexic” – word, phrase and “logos” which denotes learning a department of knowledge. Thus the literal meaning of the term “lexicology” is “the science of the word”. Lexicology as a branch of linguistics has its own aims and methods of scientific research. Its basic task – being a study and systematic description of vocabulary in respect to its origin, development and its current use. Lexicology is concerned with words, variable word-groups, phraseological units and morphemes which make up words. Lexicology is closely connected with other branches of linguistics : phonetics, for example, investigates the phonetic structure of language and is concerned with the study of the outer sound-form of the word. Grammar is the study of the grammatical structure of language. It is concerned with the various means of expressing grammatical relations between words as well as with patterns after which words are combined into word-groups and sentences. There is also a close relationship between lexicology and stylistics which is concerned with a study of a nature, functions and styles of languages. 1. DIFFERENT TIPES OF LEXICOLOGY: GENERAL AND SPECIAL, HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE, CONTRASTIVE AND COMPARATIVE LEXICOLOGY The general study of words and vocabulary, irrespective of the specific features of any particular language, is known as general lexicology. Linguistic phenomena and properties common to all languages are generally referred to as language universals. Special lexicology devotes its attention to the description of the characteristic peculiarities in the vocabulary of a given language. This book constitutes an introduction into the study of the present-day English word and vocabulary. It is therefore a book on special lexicology. It goes without saying that every special lexicology is based on the principles of general lexicology, and the latter forms a part of general linguistics. Much material that holds good for any language is therefore also included, especially with reference to principles, concepts and terms. The illustrative examples are everywhere drawn from the English language as spoken in Great Britain. A great deal has been written in recent years to provide a theoretical basis on which the vocabularies of different languages can be compared and described. This relatively new branch of study is called contrastive lexicology. Most obviously, we shall be particularly concerned with comparing English and Ukranian words. The evolution of any vocabulary, as well as of its single elements, forms the object of historical lexicology or etymology. This branch of linguistics discusses the origin of various words, their change and development, and investigates the linguistic and extra-linguistic forces modifying their structure, meaning and usage. In the past historical treatment was always combined with the comparative method. Historical lexicology has been criticised for its atomistic approach, i.e. for treating every word as an individual and isolated unit. This drawback is,...
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