To investigate the levels of processing
Year 12 psychology
The objective of this research is to understand the levels of processing memory. Memory storage doesn’t involve a separate number of memories; it is an endless measurement when memory is encoded effortlessly so that it can be retrieved, the deeper the process of information, the higher the chance of it being retrieved. Craik and Lockhart (1972) suggested that stimulus inputs undergo successive processing operations. Early stages of processing are shallow and involve coding the stimulus with its physical features (e.g., DeEp, WatER). Deep processing involves coding the stimulus more abstractly and in terms of its meaning. Therefore, acoustic coding is shallow and semantic coding is deep. There are two types of rehearsing material; maintenance and elaborative rehearsal. Maintenance rehearsal is when you look over something over and over and elaborative rehearsal is when you semantically link it to something therefore making it easier to remember. Levels of processing are also evident in another research with Elias and Perfetti (1973). Elias and Perfetti gave their participants different tasks to perform on each word list like finding rhymes for a word and finding synonyms for a word. The rhyming task involved acoustic coding and the synonym task involved semantic coding. The participants were not told that they would be asked to try recalling the words on the word list however; they surprisingly did remember some of the words. The participants remembered more words from the synonym task rather than the rhyming task due to the synonym task involving deeper processing. This is called incidental learning. Another research involving levels of processing is the Hyde and Jenkins (1973) experiment. Different groups of participants performed in one of the five tasks on a word list. The five tasks were; rating the words for pleasantness, estimating the frequency each word is used in the English language, the occurrence of letters, deciding the part of speech appropriate to each word and deciding whether the words fitted into particular sentences. Five groups of participants performed one of these tasks without being told that they were to recall the words (control group) and the other group was told that they were to recall those words (experimental group). The researchers (Hyde and Jenkins) found that the tasks with frequency of the word used in the English language were recalled the most due to it involving semantic processing. Hyde and Jenkins concluded that the incidental learners and the intentional learners performed just as well as each other due to the amount of processing. There are a few disagreements with Craik and Lockhart’s processing theory. Deeper levels of processing does lead to better recall however the argument is the amount of processing effort that produces the result. Tyler et al (1979) gave participants two anagrams to solve such as DOCTRO and a difficult one like TREBUT. Participants were given an unexpected test to recall the anagrams. The processing levels were the same and the participants remembered the difficult anagrams. Tyler et al concluded that retention is a function of processing effort, not processing depth. There were a few problems with the experiment, the participants spent a longer time processing the difficult task, and therefore, the results are influenced. The type of processing and the amount of effort/time spent can confound the results. Eysenck (1978) claimed that if a person performs well on a test of recall after performing a particular task, then the researcher will claim that they performed a deep level of processing information. Eysenck (1990) also claimed that levels of processing describes but does not explain what is actually happening, although, research has shown that deeper coding produces better retention because it is more...
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