levels of processing
An experiment was conducted to test the levels of processing of Craik and Lockhart. This experiment aimed to find out if the three different levels of processing i.e orthographic, phonemic and semantic will affect the recall of words. Participants who were 109 first year undergraduate psychology students were presented with 30 list of words one at a time which comprised of the three different levels processing and at the end were given free recall. The data was collected and analysed. The hypothesis stated that the Semantic processing will have more of a positive effect on recall and the null hypothesis stated that there will be no difference between the levels of recall. A within subject ANOVA was used to do a priori comparison of the 3 variables and the results show that the mean of semantic processing was 5.35 which is higher than that of the other 2 variables. Therefore the hypothesis was accepted and the null hypothesis was rejected.
A number of explanations have being put forward to explain memory. According to Baddeley (1991) human memory is seen as a system, used for the process of storage and retrieval of information that has being learned through our senses. Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968) proposed a model for memory which suggests that there are separate stores for the short term memory and long term memory and information is held for a short period of time in the short term memory through the process of rehearsal. And the longer materials are held in the short term memory (STM) the more likely that it would be transferred to the long term memory (LTM). Rundus (1971) conducted an experiment and found out that the more frequently an item was rehearsed the more likely it was remembered this findings supported Atkinson & Shiffrin’s explanation of memory as information got into the long term memory by the process of rehearsal. Craik & Lockhart (1972) criticized this model