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Lesson Plan in Astronomy

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Lesson Plan in Astronomy I. Objective
At the end of the lesson, the students are expected to: 1. Identify the different future missions of NASA. 2. Appreciate the exploration of NASA to benefit all mankind. 3. Explain the plans of NASA.

II. Subject Matter
NASA’s Future Plans About Space Exploration
Reference: http://www.nasa.gov/missions/future/index.html
Materials: laptop III. Procedure A. Learning Activities Teacher’s Activity“Good Morning Class...”“Let us pray first...”(Checking of attendance)...Say present..“Please pick up the pieces of paper under your chair”DISCUSSION“Our new lesson is about the future plans of NASA about space exploration, but before that what does this acronym stands for?”“ NASA stands for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. NASA is the agency of the United States government that is responsible for the nation's civilian space program and for aeronautics and aerospace research. NASA's mission is to explore space and aeronautics, or flight research. NASA is also responsible for making sure that the United States space program is conducted for peaceful purposes that can help mankind. NASA's missions include everything from studying distant worlds to improving life on Earth.”“NASA's mission statement is to 'pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research.”“Here are some of the future missions of NASA.”International Space StationThe International Space Station (ISS) is a habitable artificial satellite in low Earth orbit. It follows the Salyut, Almaz, Skylab and Mir stations as the ninth space station to be inhabited. The ISS is a modular structure whose first component was launched in 1998. Now the largest artificial body in orbit, it can often be seen at the appropriate time with the naked eye from Earth. The ISS consists of pressurised modules, external trusses, solar arrays and other components. ISS components have been launched by American Space Shuttles as well as Russian Proton and Soyuz rockets. The ISS is arguably the most expensive single item ever constructed, and its existence and operation is in result of one of the most significant instances of international cooperation in modern history. The ISS serves as a microgravity and space environment research laboratory in which crew members conduct experiments in biology, human biology, physics, astronomy, meteorology and other fields. The station is suited for the testing of spacecraft systems and equipment required for missions to the Moon and Mars. Since the arrival of Expedition 1 on November 2, 2000, the station has been continuously occupied 12 years and 230 days, currently the longest continuous human presence in space. The station is serviced by Soyuz spacecraft, Progress spacecraft, the Automated Transfer Vehicle, the H-II Transfer Vehicle, and the Dragon spacecraft. It has been visited by astronauts and cosmonauts from 15 different nations. The ISS programme is a joint project among five participating space agencies: NASA, the Russian Federal Space Agency, JAXA, ESA, and CSA. The ownership and use of the space station is established by intergovernmental treaties and agreements. The station is divided into two sections, the Russian orbital segment (ROS) and the United States orbital segment (USOS), which is shared by many nations. The ISS is maintained at an orbital altitude of between 330 km (205 mi) and 435 km (270 mi). It completes 15.7 orbits per day. The ISS is funded until 2020, and may operate until 2028. The Russian Federal Space Agency (RSA/RKA) has proposed using ISS to commission modules for a new space station, called OPSEK, before the remainder of the ISS is de-orbited.James Webb Space Telescope The James Webb Space Telescope is a large space telescope, optimized for infrared wavelengths. It is scheduled for launch later in this decade. Webb will find the first galaxies that formed in the early Universe, connecting the Big Bang to our own Milky Way Galaxy. Webb will peer through dusty clouds to see stars forming planetary systems, connecting the Milky Way to our own Solar System. Webb's instruments will be designed to work primarily in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum, with some capability in the visible range.Webb will have a large mirror, 6.5 meters (21.3 feet) in diameter, and a sunshield the size of a tennis court. The mirror and sunshade won't fit into a rocket fully open, so both will be folded and open once Webb is in outer space. Webb will reside in an orbit about 1.5 million km (1 million miles) from the Earth at the second Lagrange point.The James Webb Space Telescope was named after a former NASA Administrator.The James Webb Space Telescope will be a large infrared telescope with a 6.5-meter primary mirror. Launch is planned for later in the decade. Webb telescope will be the premier observatory of the next decade, serving thousands of astronomers worldwide. It will study every phase in the history of our Universe, ranging from the first luminous glows after the Big Bang, to the formation of solar systems capable of supporting life on planets like Earth, to the evolution of our own Solar System. Webb telescope was formerly known as the "Next Generation Space Telescope" (NGST); it was renamed in Sept. 2002 after a former NASA administrator, James Webb. Webb is an international collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is managing the development effort. The main industrial partner is Northrop Grumman; the Space Telescope Science Institute will operate Webb after launch. Webb has four main science themes: The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization, The Assembly of Galaxies, The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems, and Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life. First Light and Reionization seeks to identify the first bright objects that formed in the early Universe, and follow the ionization history.Assembly of Galaxies will determine how galaxies and dark matter, including gas, stars, metals, physical structures (like spiral arms) and active nuclei evolved to the present day.The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems focuses on the birth and early development of stars and the formation of planets.Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life studies the physical and chemical properties of solar systems (including our own) and where the building blocks of life may be present. The observations needed to accomplish these goals require a telescope that can study the Universe in infrared light. To see the faint infrared signals from these distant objects, the telescope needs to be cooled till it is just a few tens of degrees above Absolute Zero. Webb will reside far from the Earth at the L2 region where its sunshield can help to keep the telescope cool.MAVEN The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission is part of NASA's Mars Scout program, funded by NASA Headquarters. Set to launch in 2013, the mission will explore the Red Planet’s upper atmosphere, ionosphere and interactions with the sun and solar wind.

Scientists will use MAVEN data to determine the role that loss of volatile compounds—such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and water—from the Mars atmosphere to space has played through time, giving insight into the history of Mars' atmosphere and climate, liquid water, and planetary habitability.The principal investigator is Dr. Bruce Jakosky of the University of Colorado’s Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (CU/LASP).

MAVEN is the first Mars mission managed by the Goddard Space Flight Center.Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is a robotic mission that will orbit the moon to gather detailed information about the lunar atmosphere, conditions near the surface and environmental influences on lunar dust. A thorough understanding of these characteristics will address long-standing unknowns, and help scientists understand other planetary bodies as well.

The LADEE spacecraft's modular common spacecraft bus, or body, is an innovative way of transitioning away from custom designs and toward multi-use designs and assembly-line production, which could drastically reduce the cost of spacecraft development, just as the Ford Model T did for automobiles.
Onboard, LADEE will include three science instruments and a technology demonstration. * Ultraviolet and Visible Light Spectrometer: will determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere by analyzing light signatures of materials it finds. * Neutral Mass Spectrometer: will measure variations in the lunar atmosphere over multiple lunar orbits with the moon in different space environments. * Lunar Dust Experiment: will collect and analyze samples of any lunar dust particles in the tenuous atmosphere. These measurements will help scientists address a mystery: was lunar dust, electrically charged by solar ultraviolet light, responsible for pre-sunrise horizon glow that Apollo astronauts saw? * Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration: will demonstrate the use of lasers instead of radio waves to achieve broadband speeds to communicate with Earth. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is designed to study the Moon's thin exosphere and the lunar dust environment. An “exosphere” is an atmosphere that is so thin and tenuous that molecules don’t collide with each other. Studying the Moon’s exosphere will help scientists understand other planetary bodies with exospheres too, like Mercury and some of Jupiter’s bigger moons. The orbiter will determine the density, composition and temporal and spatial variability of the Moon's exosphere to help us understand where the species in the exosphere come from and the role of the solar wind, lunar surface and interior, and meteoric infall as sources. The mission will also examine the density and temporal and spatial variability of dust particles that may get lofted into the atmosphere. The mission will also test several new technologies, including a modular spacecraft bus that may reduce the cost of future deep space missions and demonstrate two-way high rate laser communication for the first time from the Moon. LADEE is scheduled for launch in September 2013 out of the Wallops Flight Facility on a Minotaur V carrier rocket. This will be the first deep space mission to be launched from that facility. The launch is anticipated to be visible along much of the eastern shore from New York to Virginia. | Student’s Activity“Good Morning Ma’am”(One student will lead the Prayer)(Students raise their hands and say present as the teacher calls in their name)(Students pick up the pieces of paper)“National Aeronautics and Space Administration”(Students listen attentively) | Mars 2020 Mission Plans Building on the success of Curiosity's landing, NASA has announced plans for a new robotic science rover set to launch in 2020. This announcement affirms the agency's commitment to a bold exploration program that meets our nation's scientific and human exploration objectives. The proposed 2020 rover mission is part of NASA's Mars Exploration Program, a long-term effort of robotic exploration of the red planet. Designed to advance high-priority science goals for Mars exploration, the mission would address key questions about the potential for life on Mars. The mission would also provide opportunities to gather knowledge and demonstrate technologies that address the challenges of future human expeditions to Mars. The mission would take advantage of a favorable launch opportunity in 2020 when Earth and Mars are in advantageous positions in their orbits for a Mars landing. That means that it would take less power to get to Mars relative to other times when Earth and Mars are in different positions in their orbits around the sun. The highly capable rover would be based on NASA's successful Mars Science Laboratory mission architecture, including its Curiosity rover and proven landing system, to keep mission costs and risks as low as possible. The budget for this mission is contingent on future appropriations. The project will assess options for infusing new capabilities through investments by NASA's Space Technology Program, Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate, and contributions from international partners.GENERALIZATION“Based on what we discuss, give one of the future missions of NASA”“The five future missions of NASA that we’ve considered were MAVEN, James Webb Space Telescope, International Space Station, Mars 2020 Mission Plans and lastly, Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer.” | (student will enumerate one by one the different missions) |

IV. Evaluation
Identify the following: _______________1. It is a large space telescope, optimized for infrared wavelengths. _______________2. It is a robotic mission that will orbit the moon to gather detailed information about the lunar atmosphere, conditions near the surface and environmental influences on lunar dust. _______________3. An atmosphere that is so thin and tenuous that molecules don’t collide with each other. _______________4. The first Mars mission managed by the Goddard Space Flight Center. _______________5. A habitable artificial satellite in low Earth orbit.

Enumeration: 1. Four main science themes of Webb Space Telescope. 2. Three Science Instruments included in LADEE. V. Assignment
Draw or print pictures of Webb Space Telescope, LADEE, MAVEN and international space station.

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