Photosynthesis is a process carried out by plants ( such as the Duckweed that I will use in my experiment) as well as other autotrophic organisms. During photosynthesis the Duckweed uses light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into energy rich glucose molecules and oxygen gas is released as a waste product. The light energy is changed in the process to chemical potential energy stored in the bonds between the carbon atoms of the glucose molecules formed. Photosynthesis occurs in two reactions: the light dependant reaction,in which energy from the sun is harvested by the chlorophyll in the chloroplasts, and the light independent reaction which occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast. The light dependent reaction occurs in the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplasts( the organelles of photosynthesis). In this process, photophosphorylation uses light energy( absorbed by the chlorophyll in the chloroplast) to attach a phosphate to ADP(adenosine diphosphate), creating ATP (adenosine triphosphate) . Energy is stored in the phosphate bonds of ATP. ATP consists of adenosine (adenine attached to a ribose sugar), which is attached to a series of three phosphate groups. Water ,absorbed via the roots by osmosis, is required in this process. The oxygen produced as a waste product during this process diffuses out through the stomata. In the light independent reaction, the ATP molecules generated during photophosphorylation are hydrolysed to ADP , by breaking one of the phosphate bonds. The energy released from this phosphate bond is used to create the energy rich bonds between the carbon atoms of sugar molecules, such as glucose molecules. Carbon dioxide , diffuses into the cell from the atmosphere ,via the stomata, and provides the carbon atoms for the glucose. The energy from the bonds between the carbon atoms of glucose is released during respiration and is used to fuel the organism’s activities such as growth and asexual reproduction....
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