Top-Rated Free Essay

Lecture Notes

Powerful Essays
Topics: Psychology
Psychology notes 10/2/2013
Psychodynamic
Sigmund freud(1856-1939)
Internal psychological forces
Consciousness, personality, abnormal, and clinical psychology
Behaviorism
John Watson 1878-1958
B.F. Skinner 1904-1990
Believed must focus on observable behavior
Learning, social environmental influences
Humanistic
Abraham Maslow 1908-1970
Carl Rogers 1902-1987
“Third force”
Positive aspects of humanity
Motivation, positive psychology, clinical psychology
Cognitivism
Dominant contemporary
Contemporary Psychology
Basic Research
1. Biological psychology
2. Developmental Psychology
3. Cognitve Psychology
4. Personality psychology
5. Social Psychology
6. Positive Psychology
Applied
1. Clinical psychology
2. Counseling psychology
3. Educational psychology
4. Industrial-organizational psychology
5. Community psychology
6. School Psychology
Biopsychosocial Approach
A set of complementary approaches
1. Biological
2. Psychological
3. Social-environmental
Different levels of Analysis
Biopsychosocial approach to Aggression
Biological level
1. Testosterone
2. Alcohol
Psychological level
1. Frustration and Anger
Social- environmental level
1.Media influence

Psychological Science and Research Methods: Lecture 2 10/2/2013

Hindsight Bias
Bias towards old or familiar information (more likely to agree with what we know)
Two competing statements 1) Birds of a feather flock together (more research to support this) 2) Opposites Attract
The Scientific Method
Setting up situations that test our ideas
Making careful organized observations
Analyzing whether the data fits with our ideas
If the data does not support our idea then we modify our ideas and test again. If there is support, test under other conditions
Theories and Hypothesis
Theories (always flaws in theories best explains data at time)
2. Integrated set of principles to explain or predict phenomena
3. Based on available evidence
4. Robustness
Hypothesis
1. Specific predictions consistent with theory
2. Principle of falsifiability (when we test it there has to be support for it to be true or not true)
3. Theories: low self esteem feeds depression Hypothesis: People with low self esteem will score higher on the depression scale must research and observations ->confirm reject or revise
Data Collection
Systematic process
Document procedures
1. Sampling
2. Operationalization
3. Data collection procedures
Principle of replication
Sampling
Population
1. The people of interest
Sample
1. Participants in the study
2. Generalizes

Types of Sampling
Random Selection
1. Equal chance of selection
Representative Sampling
1. Match important characteristics of the population
Convenience sampling (cheapest method)
1. Recruit who might be available
Hypothesis Testing
Test hypothesis using statistics
Hypothesis must be falsifiable
1. Relationships between variables
2. Group difference on some variable
Interpret and Discuss
Is hypothesis were Supported
1. Contributions
2. Relate to previous Research
3. Replicate Research
If hypothesis were not supported
1. Critique own study
2. Dead end??
Major types of Studies:
Correlational Studies
Identify relationships between variables
Surveys
1. Standardized self-reports or interviews
Correlations
Standardized, statistical relationship between two variables
1. Height and shoe size
2. Hours playing video games and test score
How much do they vary with one another?
1. As height increases, shoe size?
2. As video game play increases test score?
Correlation Coefficient r
Numeric range is -1.00 to +1.00
Magnitude (strength of relationship)
1. 0 no relationship to 1.00 perfect relationship
Direction positive as x increases y increases
Scatterplots
Visualize relationship between two variables
Correlation and Causality
A correlation does not necessarily imply causality!!
1. Crime and ice cream sales?
High positive correlation between low self esteem and depression (r=.75)
Low self esteem could cause depression or depression could cause low self esteem
Experimental Studies
Determine cause and effect through a controlled test
Manipulation
Drug clinical trial
Types of variables
Independent variable (IV)
1. Cause (drug treatment)
Dependent Variable
1. Effect (level of depression symptoms)
Variable
1. LS
GROUP Assignment
Recruit participants and assign into groups
1. Experimental (new drug treatment)
2. Control(older treatment)
Random Assignment
1. Balance out groups
2. Sas
Drug treatment Study
Research Question
1. How effective is drug x??
Akmam
Procedure
Sample
1. 100 patients diagnosed with depression
2. consenting adults in a drug treatment trial
Random Assignment
1. 50 given new drug x
2. 50 given old drug x
Drug treatment study
Conduct clinical trial
1. Both groups similar initial severity of depression, age and gender
2. Administer requirements
3. Double blind procedure(both doctor and patient do not know what is being given)
Specific research question
1. Is drug x …….
Interpreting Results
Is there a group difference in depression symptoms???
Yes
1. Casual relationship supported
2. More effective or less effective
No

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Good Essays

    Lecture Notes

    • 1068 Words
    • 5 Pages

    these basis 5 Lecture plan Topic 1 Topic 2 Topic 3 Topic 4 Topic 5 Topic 6 Topic 7 Topic 8 Introduction India’s economic strategy: from development planning to economic reforms Growth and crises in Indian economy Trade and industrial reforms Financial sector reforms and monetary policy Fiscal policy and fiscal deficit Balance of payments, trade and capital flows Unemployment, poverty and inequality 6 Examination • Closed book end-term examination: – – – – Lecture PPTs Class discussions…

    • 1068 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Lecture note

    • 343 Words
    • 2 Pages

    Farrell Hall (microcomputer classroom) /3/ Lecture notes are posted at www.pa.msu.edu/courses/phy101 . 101 lecture 1 1 PHY 101 – Lecture 1 Math. Techniques 1 - Algebra 2 - Trigonometry 3 – Analytic geometry 4 - Computer simulation 5 – Calculus Algebra: Use symbols to stand for numbers. Example 101 lecture 1 2 2 – Trigonometry We start with right triangles. Trigonometry Example But there’s more to it than that. 101 lecture 1 3 3 – Analytic geometry The…

    • 343 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Lecture Notes

    • 520 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Lecture 1 Date: 29.07.2013 1. Syllabi: 8 units available at Solapur University website also under courses link 2. Note down the books to be referred to: 1. Management: Stoner, Freeman and Gilbert 2. Management: Global Perspective: Heinz Weihrich, Cannice and Harold Koontz 3. Principles of Management: Tripathi and Reddy 4. Principles of Management – Ramasamy 5. Principles and Practices of Management – LM Prasad 6. International Management…

    • 520 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Lecture notes

    • 633 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Lecture 2014-01-29 Strategy Formation Chapter outline: I. The Issue of Realized Strategy Strategy Formation Activities Strategy Activity Roles II. The Paradox of Deliberateness and Emergence The Demand for Deliberate Strategizing The Demand for Strategy Emergence III. Perspectives on Strategy Formation The Strategic Planning Perspective The Strategic Incrementalism Perspective IV. The Debate and Readings Mission – “Some task, duty or purpose that sends someone on their way” (DVM…

    • 633 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Lecture Notes

    • 2747 Words
    • 11 Pages

    LAW EXTENSION COMMITTEE WINTER COURSE 2005 CONTRACTS LECTURE NOTES WEEK FIVE PRIVITY OF CONTRACT 1. The Privity of Contract Doctrine The privity of contract doctrine dictates that only persons who are parties to a contract are entitled to take action to enforce it. A person who stands to gain a benefit from the contract (a third party beneficiary) is not entitled to take any enforcement action if he or she is denied the promised benefit. Example: A promises B, for consideration…

    • 2747 Words
    • 11 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Lecture Notes

    • 6422 Words
    • 26 Pages

    – Month End & Payroll Cycle 16 Chapter 8 - End of Month Process 16 Chapter 9 - HR & Payroll Cycle 17 Chapter 10 - Not Required 18 Checking Your Progress 18 Quiz B 19 APPENDIX A – Installing MYOB at Home 20 Overview Please note that this workbook is broken into 2 sections namely: * Section A – MYOB Data File Setup * Section B – Business Transactions MYOB Data File Setup (Section A) – Covers Vallely - chapters 1 to 5. This section undertakes the initial set…

    • 6422 Words
    • 26 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    Lecture Notes

    • 19041 Words
    • 77 Pages

    Best way to reach Dr. Haddad: 613-620-7488 Office Hours: By appointment only at VNR 2017! 8 Chapters + Prologue (12-15 PGS) CHAPTER 1: Thinking Critically With Psychological Science CHAPTER 2: The Biology Of Mind (“Everything Psychological is Biological”) CHAPTER 6: Sensation & Perception CHAPTER 3: Consciousness & the 2 Track Mind CHAPTER 7: Learning CHAPTER 11: Motivation and Work CHAPTER 12: Emotions CHAPTER 8: Memory Books: “Psychology” by Myers (10TH edition) Evaluation…

    • 19041 Words
    • 77 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Lecture Notes

    • 14220 Words
    • 57 Pages

    Lecture Notes for Analog Electronics Raymond E. Frey Physics Department University of Oregon Eugene, OR 97403, USA rayfrey@cosmic.uoregon.edu December, 1999 Class Notes 1 1 Basic Principles In electromagnetism, voltage is a unit of either electrical potential or EMF. In electronics, including the text, the term “voltage” refers to the physical quantity of either potential or EMF. Note that we will use SI units, as does the text. As usual, the sign convention for current I…

    • 14220 Words
    • 57 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    Lecture note

    • 417 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Deductive reasoning “moves from a general statement to a specific conclusion” and works from the model of a “syllogism, a three-part argument that consists of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion” (Rosa & Eschholz, 2012, p. 540). Please note that in order to accept your conclusion/argument, your audience should accept the major and minor premises as truths. See the below example, which could be the start of one argument in support of a vegetarian diet: Major premise: Beef contains cholesterol…

    • 417 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    lecture notes

    • 5250 Words
    • 34 Pages

    Technovation 26 (2006) 336–344 www.elsevier.com/locate/technovation Technology management tools: concept, development and application Robert Phaal*, Clare J.P. Farrukh, David R. Probert Institute for Manufacturing, University of Cambridge, Mill Lane, Cambridge CB2 1RX, UK Abstract Effective systems for managing technology in complex business environments require integrated sets of management tools and processes, underpinned by well-founded conceptual frameworks. Understanding how such…

    • 5250 Words
    • 34 Pages
    Powerful Essays