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Lecture Notes

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Topics: Psychology
Psychology notes 10/2/2013
Sigmund freud(1856-1939)
Internal psychological forces
Consciousness, personality, abnormal, and clinical psychology
John Watson 1878-1958
B.F. Skinner 1904-1990
Believed must focus on observable behavior
Learning, social environmental influences
Abraham Maslow 1908-1970
Carl Rogers 1902-1987
“Third force”
Positive aspects of humanity
Motivation, positive psychology, clinical psychology
Dominant contemporary
Contemporary Psychology
Basic Research
1. Biological psychology
2. Developmental Psychology
3. Cognitve Psychology
4. Personality psychology
5. Social Psychology
6. Positive Psychology
1. Clinical psychology
2. Counseling psychology
3. Educational psychology
4. Industrial-organizational psychology
5. Community psychology
6. School Psychology
Biopsychosocial Approach
A set of complementary approaches
1. Biological
2. Psychological
3. Social-environmental
Different levels of Analysis
Biopsychosocial approach to Aggression
Biological level
1. Testosterone
2. Alcohol
Psychological level
1. Frustration and Anger
Social- environmental level
1.Media influence

Psychological Science and Research Methods: Lecture 2 10/2/2013

Hindsight Bias
Bias towards old or familiar information (more likely to agree with what we know)
Two competing statements 1) Birds of a feather flock together (more research to support this) 2) Opposites Attract
The Scientific Method
Setting up situations that test our ideas
Making careful organized observations
Analyzing whether the data fits with our ideas
If the data does not support our idea then we modify our ideas and test again. If there is support, test under other conditions
Theories and Hypothesis
Theories (always flaws in theories best explains data at time)
2. Integrated set of principles to explain or predict phenomena
3. Based on available evidence
4. Robustness
1. Specific predictions consistent with theory
2. Principle of falsifiability (when we test it there has to be support for it to be true or not true)
3. Theories: low self esteem feeds depression Hypothesis: People with low self esteem will score higher on the depression scale must research and observations ->confirm reject or revise
Data Collection
Systematic process
Document procedures
1. Sampling
2. Operationalization
3. Data collection procedures
Principle of replication
1. The people of interest
1. Participants in the study
2. Generalizes

Types of Sampling
Random Selection
1. Equal chance of selection
Representative Sampling
1. Match important characteristics of the population
Convenience sampling (cheapest method)
1. Recruit who might be available
Hypothesis Testing
Test hypothesis using statistics
Hypothesis must be falsifiable
1. Relationships between variables
2. Group difference on some variable
Interpret and Discuss
Is hypothesis were Supported
1. Contributions
2. Relate to previous Research
3. Replicate Research
If hypothesis were not supported
1. Critique own study
2. Dead end??
Major types of Studies:
Correlational Studies
Identify relationships between variables
1. Standardized self-reports or interviews
Standardized, statistical relationship between two variables
1. Height and shoe size
2. Hours playing video games and test score
How much do they vary with one another?
1. As height increases, shoe size?
2. As video game play increases test score?
Correlation Coefficient r
Numeric range is -1.00 to +1.00
Magnitude (strength of relationship)
1. 0 no relationship to 1.00 perfect relationship
Direction positive as x increases y increases
Visualize relationship between two variables
Correlation and Causality
A correlation does not necessarily imply causality!!
1. Crime and ice cream sales?
High positive correlation between low self esteem and depression (r=.75)
Low self esteem could cause depression or depression could cause low self esteem
Experimental Studies
Determine cause and effect through a controlled test
Drug clinical trial
Types of variables
Independent variable (IV)
1. Cause (drug treatment)
Dependent Variable
1. Effect (level of depression symptoms)
1. LS
GROUP Assignment
Recruit participants and assign into groups
1. Experimental (new drug treatment)
2. Control(older treatment)
Random Assignment
1. Balance out groups
2. Sas
Drug treatment Study
Research Question
1. How effective is drug x??
1. 100 patients diagnosed with depression
2. consenting adults in a drug treatment trial
Random Assignment
1. 50 given new drug x
2. 50 given old drug x
Drug treatment study
Conduct clinical trial
1. Both groups similar initial severity of depression, age and gender
2. Administer requirements
3. Double blind procedure(both doctor and patient do not know what is being given)
Specific research question
1. Is drug x …….
Interpreting Results
Is there a group difference in depression symptoms???
1. Casual relationship supported
2. More effective or less effective

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