THE FUTURISTS - Embraced new technology and urbanism as expressions of the modern. more important theoretically and ideologically, than formally or technically - First Manifesto, Feb.20, 1909 on the front page of Le Figaro, Paris; important gesture for the future development of media art written by F.T. Marinetti (1876-1944), poet influenced by Walt Whitman, who offered "a vision of a world of grandiose individuality, a world where machinery was an accepted part of life." Marinetti mailed copies to his friends, thus using existing media to spread the message: "We declare that the splendor of the world has been enriched by a new beauty - the beauty of speed. A racing car with its bonnet draped with exhaust pipes like fire-breathing serpents - a roaring racing car, rattling along like a machine gun, is more beautiful than the winded victory of Samothrace." "We will destroy all museums and libraries, and academies of all sorts; we will battle against moralism, feminism, and all vile opportunism and utilitarianism"; later the point about feminism was modified: a new kind of "unromantic woman" - War as the great artwork: will wipe away the decadent world of the past; led many futurists towards Fascism - Umberto Boccioni 1910: art must express the world transformed by "victorious science"; Luigi Russolo: Intonarumori, noise machines. Anton Giulio Bragaglia: "photodynamism"; films: Il Perfido incanto, Thais (1916, only one preserved) DADAISM began in Zurich during the WWI. “Cabaret Voltaire” the first nexus: Hugo Ball, Tristan Tzara, Hans Arp, etc. Fame soon spread to other countries and other dadaist movements evolved (Paris, Berlin...) - ambiguous relationship to machine; resistance & fascination; machine as counterforce to romantic tradition. Reaction to the destructiveness of WWI - Duchamp, Ernst, Picabia and Man Ray all flirted with the machine as subject matter - Films: Le retour à la raison (Man Ray 1921) Entr’Acte (Rene Clair, Picabia, 1924) BERLIN DADA
- Raoul Haussmann, George Grosz, John Heartfield: "dada ist politisch" - George Grosz practiced social montage by sending gift packages to soldiers with useless items: shirt fronts, cuffs, tea bags to "arouse patience, sweet dreams, respect for authority, and fidelity to the throne" - Grosz and Heartfield sent anti-war postcards to the front, msg a montage of words & photos; they felt a "composite pictorial form would not be intercepted by visually illiterate sensors." (Examples of tactical media) - Heartfield: originality: confluence of journalism & photo technology “He is the first artist (outside film) of the mass media, and, to date, the most significant”; reversed the cubist collage: instead of placing everyday objects within the frame, he took art outside the frame - Heartfield began to use the name "Monteurdada" (in dada 3, 1920) - Raoul Hausmann: adoption of “dada” was based on our refusal to play the part of the artist. We regarded ourselves as engineers and our work as construction.” - Heartfield used mimicry: "Puppetry with real people, ventriloquism with actual voices, a parody performed by the object of parody, not the object speaking through the parodist as in imitation." "A special instance of mimesis: What is being mimicked participates"
FRANCIS PICABIA - Painter, a major exponent of dadaism
- "This visit to America has brought about a complete revolution in my methods of work...Prior to leaving Europe I was engrossed in presenting psychological studies through the mediumship of forms which I created. Almost immediately upon coming to America it flashed to me that the genius of the modern world is in machinery and that through machinery art ought to find a most vivid expression...I don't know what possibilities may be in store. I mean simply to work on and on until I attain the pinnacle of mechanical symbolism." (1915) - based many of his works on engineering diagrams (L'Enfant Carburateur, 1919) - dadaist film Entr'Acte:, "an interlude from the boredom...
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