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LEAVES AND SEEDS OF MAHOGANY TREE(swietenia macrophylla) COMBINED TO OLEANDER’S FLOWER(nerrum indicum mill.)AS AN ORGANIC INSECTICIDE

By eldavion Feb 25, 2014 1146 Words
ELISEO C. RONQUILLO SR. MEMORIAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Quirino, Maria Aurora, Aurora

LEAVES AND SEEDS OF MAHOGANY TREE(swietenia macrophylla) COMBINED TO OLEANDER’S FLOWER(nerrum indicum mill.)AS AN ORGANIC INSECTICIDE

Prepared by:
JICK LAWRENCE P. GARBIN
YHANNA JAPSON
MARIEFE HIDALGO
JAIRAH P. JAPSON

Chapter 1
The Problem and its Background
Plants are mostly damage by plant insects and it seems that in every plant or crops , there was always an insect. Among these are termites and ants. Even human can also be affected by those insects like the parasite lice. The researchers do this project to lessen and eliminate the pest and insects in our surrounding. This is safe to use because it is natural and environment friendly. Adelfa plant is an erect, smooth shrub, about 2-3 meters high with milky latex. Adelfa contains toxic called oleandrin and neriine which causes nervous system, digestive system, circulatory system disorders and experience the symptoms of low consciousness, trembling, pain and death. Mahogany is a large tropical tree with a symmetrical appearance, best-known for its valuable heartwood. A fast-growing, graceful, straight-trunked, semi-deciduous tree growing to 30-70ft. Most trees, particularly planted street trees grow to 30-40ft. It loses its leaves just as new leafs sprout, so while deciduous, the tree is not without leaves for long. Tiny flowers are followed by four to five", woody fruits that burst open to expel the seeds. Isolation of chemical components from seeds of Mahogany ( Swietenia macrophylla ) using different techniques showed high saturated and unsaturated fatty acid content. It was also reported to be positive for the presence of phospholipids, neutral lipids and glycolipids.  Phosphatidylcholin is the most abundant. Other studies revealed the presence of tetranortriterpenoids specifically swietenoloids and swietenines , diacetate resins and phenolic compounds." 

The leaves are known to be insecticidal ( several limonoids; seven phragmalin limonoids of swietephragmins ) and fruits contain triterpenoid-saponins, which could be pesticides but the only seed content. Statement of the Problem

This study sought to answer the following questions:
1. Can Oleander (nerium indicum Mill) and Mahogany tree(swietenia macrophylla) eliminate insects like ants, lice, termites and ticks? 2. Is the propose insecticide safe to use?
3. Is the propose insecticide can be a good substitute for chemical insecticide? Hypothesis
1. Oleander (nerium indicum Mill) (swietenia macrophylla) eliminate insects. 2. The propose insecticide safe to use.
3. The propose insecticide can be a good substitute for chemical insecticide. Significance of the Study
The study was made to eliminate or minimize insects. In accordance with this, it can help to cure pediculosis among the children .Final product do not seen any side effects .It is environment friendly and good for health.

Definition of Terms
The following terms are defined operationally for better understanding of this study: Oleander – a smooth shrub with pink flower which combined to Mahogany tree as a potential source of organic insecticide Insecticide- a liquid extracted from oleander’s flower and mahogany tree that kills insects Decoction- a process in which the flower of oleander with water subjected to heat. Extracting- a process in which the mahogany seed pounded to get its toxins. Mahogany seeds- a white oval shape seed which pounded and combined to the oleander flower and mahogany leaves.

Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES

According to the studies of Institution of Philippine medicinal Plants (2006),the bark of Nerium indicum Mill. Is an important source of botanical molluscicide and is an effective insecticide against Blatta oreintalis.Glycocides, steroids and terpinoids were also isolated from Nerium indicum.

Adelfa contains toxic called oleandrin and neriiene which causes nervous system, digestive system, circulatory system disorders and experience the symptoms of low of consciousness, trembling, pain and death. Isolation of chemical components from seeds of Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) using different techniques showed high saturated and unsaturated fatty acid content. It was also reported to be positive for the presence of phospholipids, neutral lipids and glycolipids.  Phosphatidylcholin is the most abundant. Other studies revealed the presence of tetranortriterpenoids specifically swietenoloids and swietenines, diacetate resins and phenolic compounds. The terms diacetate resins and phenolic compounds are too vague to classify their activity. The leaves are known to be insecticidal (several limonoids; seven phragmalin limonoids of swietephragmins) and fruits contain triterpenoid-saponins, which could be pesticides but the only seed content.

Chapter 3
METHODOLOGY

The laboratory of our school which serve as the experimental area for this study is prepared for conducive learning and for performing experimentation. Laboratory apparatus like funnel, beaker, tripod, alcohol lamp, pan balance, wire gauze are available and dust free. The room was well ventilated. The tables and chairs are properly arranged.

Preparation of Materials
The researchers prepared the following materials as needed to this study: Erlenmeyer flask, wire gauze, match, 120 grams of adelfa flower, alcohol lamp, 40 ml of water for each 3 beakers, tripod, mortar and pestle, 15 seeds of mahogany tree, 15 pieces of mahogany leaves and cheese cloth as strainer.

Preparation of Three(3) Setups
For the first solution, weight 30 grams of adelfa flower and 5 leaves of mahogany then put it on the beaker with 40 ml. of water. Next use the alcohol lamp to apply strong heat into the beaker. Let it boil for 20 minutes. While boiling, pound 5 pieces of mahogany seeds with the use of mortar and pestel.For the remaining 5 minutes put the extract seed to the solution. After 20 minutes, strain the mixture using the cheese cloth and put the liquid to Erlenmeyer flask. Let it cool and transfer it to the empty bottle. For the second solution with 40 grams of adelfa flower and third solution 60 grams, do the same step as the first solution.

Schematic Diagram of the Research

IV.RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Trial no. 1
By using 30 grams of adelfa.
Insect
# of insects
Solution
#of insects killed
Ants
10
40 ml. of water
2
Termites
10
40 ml. of water
2
Lice
10
40 ml. of water
1
grasshopper
10
40 ml. of water
0

Trial no.2
By using 40 grams of adelfa.
Insect
# of insects
Solution
#of insects killed
Ants
10
40 ml. of water
3
Termites
10
40 ml. of water
3
Lice
10
40 ml. of water
2
grasshopper
10
40 ml. of water
0

Trial no.3
By using 60 grams of adelfa.
Insect
# of insects
Solution
#of insects killed
Ants
10
40 ml. of water
9
Termites
10
40 ml. of water
9
Lice
10
40 ml. of water
7
grasshopper
10
40 ml. of water
0

V.EXPLANATION/CONCLUSION
The result showed that the greater amount of Oleander’s Flower, mahogany seed and bark put in a solution the more toxic and effective it can be. It shows that trial no.3 is the most effective because it kill many insects.

VI.RECOMENDATION
Materials have been proven that they can be used as a substitute insecticide. Instead of throwing it I recommended further study by the experts so that the whole parts of Oleander’s flower and Mahogany Tree could be great usefulness.

VII. SS Bibliography

http://library .pregi.net/gsdl/collect/ac…
http://www.tropilab.com/mahogany.html
amazing healing plants by Jc kurian,PH.D.,D.S.C.
Philippine medicinal plants
AR dictionary
Wikipedia.org/wiki/nerium
www.stuart x change.org/adelfa.htm

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