Answer each of the following questions as completely and as extensively as possible.
(Before completing this handout, please review these sections of Chapter 5: “Classical Conditioning,” page 180; “Operant Conditioning,” page 190; “Cognitive Learning Theory,” page 205.)
1. Who is Ivan Pavlov and what was his contribution to psychology?
Pavlov’s discovery that dogs would salivate to particular sounds in his laboratory led him to identify a process of learning called classical conditioning. His work had a major influence on the field, particularly on the development of behaviorism. His research also demonstrated techniques of studying reactions to the environment in an objective, scientific method.
2. Define classical conditioning and offer one example.
The process of learning by which a previously neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response identical or similar to the one that was originally elicited by another stimulus as the result of the paring or association of the two stimuli.
Example: Fear of Dentistry – The association of pain during dental procedures with environmental stimuli in the dentist’s office leads to a learned fear response to the environmental cues alone. 3. Who is the theorist behind Operant Conditioning?
The theorist behind operant conditioning is Burrhus Frederic “B.F.” Skinner he was an American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and social philosopher.
4. Define operant conditioning and offer one example.
The process of learning in which the consequences of a response determine the probability that the response will be repeated.
Example: If students receive answers to their questions only when they raise their hands before asking them, hand-raising behavior is strengthened.
5. Who is the theorist most famous for the “Cognitive Learning Theory?”
Albert Bandura, he is a social-cognitive learning theorist who is well known for developing a thepry based on modeling