Kolb and Gardner Learning styles and how this can assist the learner progressing, into higher education. Within this assessment, the learner will consider David Kolb experiential learning theory (1984) and Howard Gardner theory of multiple intelligence (1983). The learner will then look at how this knowledge can assist their progression in further studies in Counselling and Psychology. The learner will also complete two learning style assessment to establish what style is learning is best suited to the learner. The multiple Intelligence theory was developed by developmental psychologist Howard Gardner (Gardner,2004). This theory was first published in his book Frames of Minds (1983). Gardner stated to his mind “a human intellectual competence must entail a set of skills of problem solving, enabling the individual to resolve genuine problem or difficulties that he or she encounters and when appropriate to create an effective product that must also entail the potential for finding or creating problems”(2004,p.60-61). Gardner’s theory posits that there are seven ways people understand and perceive the world. Linguistic intelligence involves the ability to use spoken or written language and to use language to express oneself. Logical mathematical consists of inductive and deductive thinking and reasoning abilities, logic as well as the use of numbers and abstract pattern recognition. Visual-spatial intelligence involves the ability to mentally visualise objects and spatial dimensions. Body kinesthetic entails the wisdom of the body to coordinate bodily movements to solve problems. Musical-rhythmic intelligence involves skills to recognise tones, beats and rhythms. Interpersonal intelligence is concerned with the capacity to understand and communicate effectively with other, and to be able to develop relationships. Intrapersonal intelligence entails the ability to understand one’s own emotions, motivation, inner states of being and self-reflection (Gardner,2004). David Kolb developed the model of experimental learning theory (ELT) 1984. Kolb stated that learning is a process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. (Kold 1984 cited in Businessballs.com,2013). This theory is based on a four stage learning cycle. The first stage is the concrete experience (CE). This is where the learner experiences an activity. This then form a basis for reflective observation (RE). At this stage, the learner reflects in that active experience. The third stage the abstract conceptualisation (AC) is where the learner then attempts to make sense of the experience. The final stage is the active experimental (AE) stage, where the learner then tests the theory for a forthcoming experience (Arnold. Moodle,2013). From the experimental learning theory, Kolb identified four different styles of learning which the learner may best learn. An assimilator may learn better when they are presented with alogical theory to consider. The converger learn best when given practical application. An accommodator learn best when provided with hands on experience. A diverger is one’s who learn better when allowed to observe and collect things through information (Arnold. Moodle,2013) . Based on Howard Gardner’s theory the learner completed the multiple intelligence test and the VAK assessments in order to determine the preferred style of learning. In the multiple intelligence test, the learner strongest attribute was linguistic. Second strongest were interpersonal and intrapersonal. Bodily-kinesthetic and visual-spatial were equal, with the least strength in logical-mathematical and musical. In the VAK assessment, the learner preferred style of learning was a visual learning style. As a visual learner, with the aid of images and diagrams the learner will be able to better remember information, therefore making the work less overwhelming when studying. As an aspiring counsellor main advantage of high interpersonal skills would be ability to create relationships with other people, while being able to understand and maintain those relationships. The learner being self-aware has the ability to identify their strengths and weaknesses, enabling the learner to take a more objective look at their choices and actions making them more productive and beneficial. As stated by Peter Saunders in his book First Steps in Counselling (1996), self-awareness/interpersonal skills are the first step of developing a counsellor. The learner possess low logical mathematical intelligence will need to improve these skills. As stated by the British Psychology Society a psychologist should possess a good knowledge of literacy and numeracy. A psychologist should also possess the skills and ability to comprehend and use data sufficiently, analyse and present complex ideas, and be able to problem solve and reason scientifically to consider alternative approaches and solutions. BPS (2013). Your Journey to Psychology. The learner can improve their logical mathematical skills by practicing solving mathematical problems, practice tests or playing math games. The learner can also enlist the help of a tutor or going a math club. Conclusion
The learner being a visual learner with strong linguistic, interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence will be able to understand and interpret instructions using their linguistic intelligence. The learner will also be able to for relationships with others, work as part of a team. With there skill, the learner can interpret moods from facial expressions and demonstrate feeling through body language. The learner will need to improve their logical mathematical skill as this is important in the progression into higher education.
Howard. G. (2004) Frames of Minds: Theory of Multiple Intelligences. 20th anniversary edition. New York, New York: Basic Books, A member of the Perseus Books Group. Saunders. P. (2002) First Steps in Counselling: A Student Companion for Basic Introductory Courses. 3rd revised edition. Ross on Wye, Herefordshire: PCCS Books.
http://www.businessballs.com/howardgardnermultipleintelligences.htm (accessed October 12) http://www.bps.org.uk/sites/default/files/images/your_journey_web_0.pdf (accessed October 22)