Learning and memory

Topics: Memory, Memory processes, Hippocampus Pages: 6 (2176 words) Published: February 24, 2014

Learning and memory are connected to each other. Learning is the obtaining of knowledge, skills and information through experience that caused changing in behavior and most lightly to be applied permanently. All those materials that we obtained from learning process are stored, kept and available to be recalled in a system called memory. From this definition it is clear that there is no memory without learning. Basically, once learning process occurred, it followed by memory process. Without learning and memory, it would be difficult to function and do the daily tasks. For example, what happen if do not know how to get dressed and do not remember which part of the clothes should be put first, it will be a disaster. Learning process obtained through some different ways and involves some components. Whereas memory process has to go through some steps in order the learning process can be kept and retrieve whenever needed. The following are the explanation pertaining to learning and memory process. LEARNING

Learning is the obtaining of knowledge, skills and information through experience that caused changing in behavior and most lightly to be applied permanently. There are three theories of learning. It is the different ways how we learn and obtaining the knowledge and information. The first one is classical condition. It is the learning through association in which we associate something with a certain thing. This conditioning learning involves three phases to occur. a) Phase one is pre-conditioning, it is where the first information presented do not give any response, for example: a few time a child is taken to Walgreens, he has no response of fear. b) Phase two is conditioning, it is where the first information presented, followed by another information that caused a response, for example: the last time a child taken to Walgreens he saw a scary halloween decoration and he got so scared. c) Phase three is post conditioning, it is anytime the first information presented, will cause a response, for example: every time the child encounter Walgreens, he get scared because the memory that stored in his brain associate Walgreens with scary Halloween decoration.

The second theory of learning is operant conditioning. It is the learning process through consequence. It could be a good consequence or the opposite. There are two central components of operant conditioning: a) Reinforcement: It is the strategy to increase the behavior. This reinforcement consists of positive and negative. Positive is increasing behavior by giving something good to motivate that person to keep increasing the good behavior. For example: the students who maintain the average GPA 3.5 will get a scholarship. So in order to get a scholarship these students keep studying hard. Negative reinforcement is increasing behavior by taking something bad away. For example: the students whose average GPA below 2 will be expelled from school. So to in order to keep their school they will change their bad studying style become more serious in study. b) Punishment: It is the strategy to reduce the bad behavior. This punishment consists of positive and negative. Positive is adding something bad to decrease bad behavior. For example: somebody who drives over the speed limit will get a ticket. Negative is decrease the bad behavior by taking something good. For example: a driver who gets more than 3 times speeding ticket will have his driver’s license suspended.

The third theory of learning is Observational learning. It is the learning process obtained by observing, watching, and imitating the action or behavior performed by somebody else. There are four process of observational learning. a) Attention: we have to stay focus, pay attention and fully aware to learn that behavior when it is presented. For example: when we learn how to swim, we have to watch and listen carefully when the trainer explaining how to move the body and how to breath. b) Retention: we...
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