JOURNAL OF SCIENCE OF HNUE
2011, Vol. 56, No. 1, pp. 138-143
LEARNERS STRATEGY AND KEY STEPS OF TEACHING
NEW STRATEGY OF SARA COTTERALL AND HAYO REINDERS
TO 1ST YEAR STUDENTS OF ENGLISH
Hoang Thi Giang Lam
Hanoi National University of Education
Abstract. This study attempts to present what the author has experienced and applied in teaching new strategies to 1st year students of English at HNUE with an example of application into reading strategies for example reading for main idea according to ﬁve key steps by Sara Cotterall and Hayo Reinders (2004). These brieﬂy introduced key steps are: (1) raising learners awareness of the strategy, that is to make them see the importance and the need to study the strategy; (2) modelling the strategy, the step in which a teacher tries to show how to use the strategy as they read the text for example; (3) trying out the strategy: at this stage a teacher has to design several activities for students to practice using the new strategy; (4) evaluating the strategy to see if the students ﬁnd the strategy useful or if they have any diﬃculties in using it to solve all arising problems; (5) encouraging transfer of the strategy to new contexts: regular practice and revision should be given to make students work independently in any situations they may have in their lifetime learning process.
Keywords: learner’s strategy, learning strategy, language learning
In the last ﬁfteen years, the concepts of teaching strategies for language learning have gained a great deal of interest from many educators and trainers worldwide because of its practicality. By teaching students about strategies, teachers are stimulating them to share more responsibilities for their learning progress since their learning is actually done by * students not teachers. Vietnamese children have been deeply attached to very traditional ways of teaching and learning for 12 primary years at school, i.e. the teacher is the person who decides everything to teach, the learning methods, etc. and pupils just simply keep following without much understanding of what and why they are doing it. Hence, entering the university and 138
Learners strategy and key steps of teaching new strategy...
knowing little about self learning strategies, many of them face quite a few diﬃculties in adapting into a new learning environment where learning usually continues outside the classroom. Especially for those who are studying at university to become future teachers in general and teachers of language in particular whose job requires regular study and non-stop knowledge improvement, the need of how to manage their independent learning is far more necessary than ever. Therefore, this independent learning should be formed and encouraged right from the ﬁrst year of students at the university to promote their motivation, their learning eﬃciency, and help them take control of their own learning in their lifetime study. And obviously, the very ﬁrst step in forming students independent learning is providing them with learning strategies so that they can conﬁdently and ﬂexibly adjust themselves in any circumstances.
What are learner strategies? Learner strategies have been deﬁned by diﬀerent writers in diﬀerent ways. Rebecca Oxfords (1990, p.8) deﬁnition emphasizes the beneﬁts of learner strategies:
Speciﬁc actions taken by the learner to make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, more self-directed, more eﬀective, and more transferable to new situations. Anita Wenden (1987, p. 6-7) believes that strategies include three elements: - Language learning learners actually engage in to learn and regulate the learning of a second language; - What learners know about the strategies they use;
- What learners know about aspects of their language learning other than the strategies they use.
OMalley and Chamot (1990) divide learner...
References:  Cotterall, S. & Reinders, H., 2004. Learner Strategies A Guide for Teacher,
RELC Portfolio Series 12. SEAMEO Regional Language Center.
 OMalley, J.M. & Chamot, A.U., 1990. Learning strategies in second language
acquisition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
 Oxford, R.L., 199. Language learning strategies, What every teacher should know.
Boston, Mass: Heinle & Heinle.
 Wenden, A., (1987. Conceptual background and utility. In Wenden, A. & Rubin,
J. (Eds) Learner Strategies in Language Learning, pp. 3-14, Englewood Cliﬀs,
New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
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