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Topics: Academic writing, Modal verb, Grammatical person Pages: 11 (1343 words) Published: April 14, 2014
ORGANISATIONAL QUESTIONS


7 weeks;



1 lecture a week;



One PowerPoint presentation +

Written tasks +
attendance minimum 70 %+
activeness =

NO EXAM


Is evaluated according to Latvian standards



Theoretical background and practical experience

ACADEMIC WRITING
A broad definition of academic writing is any
writing done to fulfill a requirement of a
college or university.
Academic writing is also used for publications
that are read by teacher and researchers or
presented at conferences.

A LIST OF DOCUMENTS WHERE ACADEMIC
WRITING IS USED


Books and book reports



Translations



Essays



Research paper or research article



Conference paper



Academic journal



Dissertation and Thesis - These are written to obtaining an advanced degree at a college or university.



Abstract - This is a short summary of a long document.



Explication - This is a work which explains part of a particular work.

ACADEMIC STYLE


Make your writing impersonal and formal



avoid too much personal language (I, my, we etc). Some tutors prefer you to avoid it completely.



Never use emotional language;



be objective rather than subjective.



avoid being too dogmatic and making sweeping generalisations.



It is usually best to use some sort of “hedging” language and to qualify statements that you make. you should consistently use evidence from your source reading to back up what you are saying and reference this correctly.



avoid sexist language.

Don’t refer to “the doctor” as he; instead, make the subject herself/himself etc.

plural and refer to them as they. Avoid he/she,



use nominalisation; that is, try to write noun-based phrases rather that verb-based ones. For example, instead of
Crime was increasing rapidly and the police were becoming concerned. Write:
The rapid increase in crime was causing concern among the police.



In general, academic writing tends to be fairly dense, with relatively long sentences and wide use of subordinate clauses.



Remember, however, that your main aim is clarity, so
don’t be too ambitious, particularly when you’re starting to write.

AN ACADEMIC AUDIENCE EXPECTS:

ASPECTS OF ACADEMIC LANGUAGE AND STYLE
• Choice of words
• Grammar
• Useful Vocabulary

• Cautious Language

CHOICE OF WORDS


the formal or neutral alternative is normally preferred.



avoid colloquialisms and idioms

Example 1
Colloquial/idiom: Her paper made a tremendous contribution to the field. Formal/neutral: Her paper made a major contribution to the field. Example 2
Colloquial/idiom: The community managed to scratch a living from the poor soil. Formal/neutral: The community managed to survive by farming the poor soil. •

Avoid using the verb ‘get’

Example

Colloquial/idiom: The settlers got ill after drinking polluted water. Formal/neutral: The settlers became ill after drinking polluted water.

GRAMMAR


Avoid the ‘not + verb’ negative form if an alternative form is available.

Examples:
1. ‘There isn’t any evidence in support of this claim.
There is no evidence in support of this claim. (preferred version)

2. The new study doesn’t support many of the initial findings. The new study supports few of the initial findings. (preferred version)

3. There isn’t much research on this topic.
There is little research on this topic. (preferred version)


1.

If you use the ‘not + verb’ negative form, avoid contracted forms. Sales didn’t increase despite the introduction of new targets.

Sales did not increase despite the introduction of new targets. (preferred version)

GRAMMAR 2
Avoid using the second person pronoun ‘you’
In everyday conversation and in informal writing, we use the personal pronoun ‘you’ both to address our listener or reader and to make statements impersonal. For example, the statement ‘You said I...
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