Natasha R. Spears
Grand Canyon University: RES-850
May 7, 2015
Leadership is more than a place within an organizational structure; it is a discipline and a path, a calling to become a powerful catalyst for and the embodiment of change. When comparing leadership styles, there is a notion that the workplace proscribes dominant behavior to Black men and white women and looks upon dominant Black women differently. The following is a discussion of Blacks, men and women, in leadership positions and training, job performance and employers’ expectations; organizational performance; and, leadership experiences through the comparison of three articles. The first article, titled “Blacks as Supervisors: A Study of Training, Job Performance, and Employers' Expectations,” by Richard W. Beatty (1973) argues that the need for research on minority supervisors is essential, as is the need for research on other minority problems. “Failure is not an Option for Black Women: Effects of Organizational Performance on Leaders with Single Versus Dual-Subordinate Identities” by Ashleigh Shelby Rosette and Robert W. Livingston (2012) is the second article. The researchers seek to fill the gap related to research that has explicitly investigated the manner in which leadership perceptions differ for individuals believed to be suffering from double-jeopardy (i.e., Black women), which was minimal at the time of the study, and explore whether leader perceptions vary as a function of single- versus dual-subordinate identities. Finally, the purpose of the third article, “Rearticulating the Leadership Experiences of African American Women in Midlevel Student Affairs Administration,” by Hannah L. Clayborne and Florence A. Hamrick (2007), is two-fold. First it seeks to explore and ultimately understand leadership from the onset of the experiences – personal and professional - of Black women in midlevel student affairs positions at two and four year predominantly white institutions (PWIs). Additionally, the study seeks to build upon definitions of leadership from Black women’s viewpoints and experiences in an effort to augment established notions of leadership and its practices. Examination of these articles, referred to as Articles 1, 2 and 3 moving forward, will explore training, job performance and employers’ expectations; organizational performance; and, leadership experiences. The examination includes a review of research questions and purpose, sample populations, results, ethics implications, limitations, and conclusions. Research Questions
The following section presents a discussion of the research questions presented in Articles 1, 2, and 3. Focusing on a training program funded by federal, state, and foundation dollars in the spring of 1971 that sought to prepare “Negro” employees for first-level supervisory positions, the researcher in Article1 poses three research questions to add to the body of empirical research related to minority training programs. These include the extent to which a federal training program fulfilled its stated objectives of developing certain supervisory attitudes and cognitive skills; the importance of these attitudes and skills to employers' evaluations of the trainees' supervisory performance; and, the nature of the criteria actually used by employers in their performance ratings, (Beatty, 1973, p. 197). The researchers in Article 2 foresee a direct correlation between leader gender and race, as well as organizational performance. They argue that leadership and subordinates perceive Black women negatively compared to Black men or White women, if their organization is not successful. Furthermore, the researchers predict that this proposed moderation will be mediated by the extent to which a target exhibits the characteristics consistent with a leader will mediate the predicted interaction between organizational performance, leader race, and leader gender on perceived...
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