Part 3: Focus on the Followers
Chapter 9: Motivation, Satisfaction, and Performance
Key Learning Points
Because a fundamental aspect of leadership is getting results through others, follower motivation, satisfaction, and performance are vitally important topics for leaders. Research has shown that the best followers often perform at a level 20-50 percent higher than average followers, and much of this difference in performance is due to motivation. Leaders who have dissatisfied followers or cannot motivate followers will have difficulty building teams and getting results. Therefore, the more leaders know about motivation, satisfaction, and performance, the more likely they will be successful
Defining Motivation, Satisfaction, and Performance
Motivation can be defined as anything that provides direction, intensity, and persistence to behavior. Performance consists of those behaviors directed towards the accomplishment of team or organizational goals, or the products or services resulting from these behaviors. Performance is different than effectiveness, which concerns judgments about the adequacy of these behaviors, products, or services. Job satisfaction can be defined as the degree to which a person likes to do a certain job or work activity. Motivation, performance, effectiveness, and satisfaction are highly interrelated concepts, and research has shown that leaders using proper motivating techniques have more satisfied followers who also perform at a high level. This in turn helps to reduce follower turnover and increase customer satisfaction and loyalty. These effects on customers often result in increased unit or team performance, such as store revenues and profitability. Therefore a leader’s behavior is related to unit or team performance, but the relationship is mediated by follower performance and satisfaction.
Understanding and Influencing Follower Motivation
Chapter 9 describes 5 different theories of/ approaches to follower motivation. The needs approach is illustrated by Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs which maintains that everyone has the same basic types of needs which may be deficient based on the individual and leaders can motivate followers by satisfying these needs. The individual differences approach to motivation is illustrated by Achievement Orientation which maintains that leaders can motivate followers by hiring people with high levels of achievement orientation and intrinsically motivated by the work to be performed. Goal setting is a cognitive approach and states the best way for leaders to motivate followers is to set and clarify challenging yet achievable goals. A situational approach assumes that leaders can best motivate followers by manipulating certain situational factors, and includes such theories as the operant approach and empowerment. All of these approaches and theories to motivation have advantages and disadvantages and are more applicable in some situations than others. Many of these theories can also be used in the explanation of follower job satisfaction.
Understanding and Influencing Follower Satisfaction
Job satisfaction concerns one’s attitudes about work, and research has shown these attitudes are related to turnover, absenteeism, grievance rates, organizational citizenship or counterproductive work behaviors, customer satisfaction, and even investor decisions. Employee surveys are used to assess global, facet, and life satisfaction. Three important theories of job satisfaction are Affectivity, Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory, and Organizational Justice. Brief Definitions of the Key Terms for Chapter 9
Motivation: anything that provides direction, intensity and persistence in behavior. Performance: those behaviors related to team or organizational goals. Effectiveness: the adequacy of the...
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