The purpose of the paper is to explore the various types of leadership styles that affected the motivation of the employee. Jonathan and Dan have two different managerial styles. Jonathan a manager in super market who prefers to change the duties of his subordinates. He is effective manager who is liked by his employees and everyone in supermarket wants to work for him. Dan a manager who prefers a consecutive routine and adherence with a focus on repeatability. He is moderator for 30 minutes lunch break. The main characters are two friends Alex and Stephanie. They work full time and this job helps them to pay for college. Alex works for Dan, he portrayed as unhappy and disappointed. Stephanie works for Jonathon and always ready to work, she is vigorous and high motivated. This case "A Question of Motivation" will be analyzed through the Needs - Goal Theory (Maslow), Equity Theory of Motivation, Hershey - Blanchard Life-Cycle Theory and Path-Goal Theory.
NEEDS - GOAL THEORY (MASLOW)
"Maslow states that human beings possess the five basic needs and theorizes that they can be arranged in a hierarchy of importance - the order in which individuals generally strive to satisfy them".(Certo&Certo, 2012, p.371)
Motivation has a significant meaning in understanding subordinate's behavior; motivation can influence this behavior to rich goals. Maslow's Motivational theory is based on the idea that human behavior is controlled through a limited number of developing fundamental needs which operate in a fixed sequence. Need is defined as a condition of deficit. Individuals are perceived as a biological being having psychological capacities. The psychological needs - the needs that are usually taken as the starting point for motivation theory are so-called psychological drivers.2 The Maslow hierarchy of needs starts from the bottom of the pyramid. First step is _psychological needs_, these needs include necessities like food, sleep, water, sexual drive, breathing, air. These necessities required for body to survive and normal function. Next step is _security needs,_ they contain security of family, health, body, resources, property, employment, a safe work environment. Next is _social needs_, it includes the desire for social contact and interaction, friendship, family, affection and other various types of support. Above social needs are _esteem needs_ which include status, recognition, confidence, respect of others. As they are satisfied, individual goes upper and stands on final need_- self-actualization needs._ At this stage an individual needs morality, problem solving, creativity, desire for achievement, personal growth and development. The movement from one level to the next was termed satisfaction progression by Maslow and it was assumed that over time individuals were motivated to continually progresses upward through these levels.
In the case study, "A Question of Motivation", Robbins and Judge 12th edition many of these levels are demonstrated, for instance, sense of safety ""Though pay isn't great, it's a steady job that allow them some flexibility, which helps when scheduling classes"(Robbins & Judge, 2007, p. 712). It's security of having a job and security of being able to pay for college. An example of social needs described in first paragraph, it states that Alex and Stephanie became friends because similar situation made them closer to each other. Their managers Dan and Jonathan are differ in esteem needs, especially Dan is making Alex's self-respect descend while it's opposite for Stephanie. According to Robbins and Judge "_A Question of Motivation,_ 12th edition, Alex's manager (Dan) supervises the produce department and prefers for subordinates to work in the same position at all times, he often humiliate Alex. Stephanie's manager (Jonathan) is very friendly, he encourages his subordinates to increase their horizon by letting creativity and working and working in different positions....
References: 1) Certo, S. C., & Certo, S. T. (2012). _Modern Management: Concepts and Skills._ Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
2) Maslow, A.H., 1943, A theory of Human Motivation, p. 372-396.
3) Carrell, Michael R. and Dittrich, John E., 1978, Equity Theory: The Recent Literature, Methodological Considerations, and New Directions, p. 202-208.
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