Leadership and Management

Topics: Leadership, Management, Strategic management Pages: 53 (16085 words) Published: November 2, 2014

Management and leadership are terms that are frequently used interchangeably, however, they are not the same thing – they have quite distinct meanings. The two do have similarities but they also have important differences. This research report aims to understand the difference between leadership and management and why these differences are important. It also puts this into a modern context, so that they can be understood against a backdrop of increasingly technological workplaces and with regard to other aspects of organizations today, including areas such as teleworking and outsourcing, for example.


The world of work has undergone significant change in recent years, and it is important to understand these changes in order to gain perspective on this work.
Cooper (2005, p.1) states that:

“By the end of the 1980s and into the early 1990s, a major restructuring of work as we have never known it since the industrial revolution was beginning to take place… Organizations throughout the Western world and even further afield, dramatically ‘downsized’, ‘de-layered’, ‘flattened’ or ‘right sized’. Whatever euphemism you care to use, the hard reality experienced by many was job loss and wrenching change”.

As Cooper describes it, this has led to leaner organizations and less security, and new technologies that have in turn driven changes in both organizational structures and individual competencies. As companies face new challenges and the everincreasing speed of change, there have been a number of fundamental changes in the way that businesses operate that affect leadership and management skills that are required by organizations. According to Cooper, these include becoming more flexible and adaptable, outsourcing parts of the business, a move to a white collar workforce rather than a blue collar one, and teleworking. Cooper argues that all of these have fundamentally changed organizations and have led to entities that are flatter.

According to Cooper, organizations now need to manage “enormous change” as well as increase the diversity of work that they are doing. As a result, it may be argued that both leadership and management skills have had to adapt so that organizations are able to survive. Specifically, Burke and Cooper (2004) write about how management is now based around knowledge workers and the management of those individuals, and that information has become of great importance in the organization, and the volume of information to manage was considerably less in the past. This has clearly had a profound impact on the types of leadership and management skills that are required in organizations in the 21st century. Organizations have had to adapt to such dramatic changes, and correspondingly, leadership and management skills have changed.

Cooper (2005) goes on to argue that during the last few decades people have come to understand the management role as a “control mechanism”. In addition to having skills that are technical, these days one of the primary skills also required is that of managing people. Arguably this has always been the case of course, but Cooper discusses how this has never been truer. He also describes the work of Handy from 1976, who argued that the role of the manager as an occupation that people identify with had recently emerged at that time. Cooper writes that Handy argued that there were two main roles of managers – one was the manager as a person and the other the management as a General Practitioner. Managers have to develop skills to ensure that they are marketable on the one hand (the person side) but on the GP side, they have to deal with problems that require solutions. Cooper (2005, p. 5) states that this has led to managers who can diagnose organizational problem symptoms and address the problem, but who really do not necessarily understand the causes of the problem, leading these same issues to repeat over and over again....

References: Adair, J. (1998) Effective Leadership: How to develop leadership skills, 2nd Edition, London, Pan Books.

Adair, J. (1996) Effective Motivation: How to get extraordinary results from everyone, London, Pan Books.

Armstrong, M. and Baron, A. (1998) Performance Management: The New Realities, London, CIPD.

Bennis, W. (1989) Becoming a Leader, Philadelphia, Harper Paperbacks.

Blagg, D. and Young, S. (2001) “What Makes a Good Leader?” Harvard Business School Bulletin, February 2001.

Boatman, J., Willis, R.S. and Till, I. (2011) “Global Leadership Forecast 2011”, DDI, http://www.ddiworld.com/DDIWorld/media/trendresearch/globalleadershipforecast2011_singaporehighlights_tr_ddi.pdf.

Bolden, R. (2007) “Trends and Perspectives in Management and Leadership”, Business Leadership Review IV:II, April 2007.

Bower, M. (1997) ‘Developing Leaders in a Business’, The McKinsey Quarterly, Number 4.

Boyatzis, R. and McKee, A. (2005) Resonant Leadership: Renewing Yourself and Connecting with Others Through Mindfulness, Hope and Compassion, Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston.

Bryan, L. and Hulme, R. (2003) ‘Managing for improved corporate performance’, The McKinsey Quarterly, Number 3.

Burke, R.J. and Cooper, C.L. (2004) Leading in Turbulent Times: Issues and Challenges, Wiley and Blackwell, Manchester.

Chance, P (1989) ‘Redefining the supervisor’s role’, Across The Board, May.

CIPD (2001) ‘Raising UK productivity: Why people management matters’, CIPD, March 2001 Survey.

Collins, J. (2001) Good To Great, London, Random House Business Books.

Cook, S. and Macaulay, S. (1993) ‘Efficiency through self-appraisal’, Managing Service Quality, November.

Cooper, R. (1997) ‘Applying emotional intelligence in the workplace’, Training and Development, Volume 51, Issue 12.

Cooper, C.L. (2005) Leadership and Management in the 21st Century: Business Challenges of the Future, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Drucker, P.F. (1999) Management Challenges for the 21st Century, New York, Harper Business.

Drucker, P. (1999) ‘Managing Oneself’, Harvard Business Review, March-April.

DTI (2004) “Inspired Leadership: Insights into people who inspire exceptional performance”, DTI, accessed on 19/03/12:
http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http://www.berr.gov.uk/files/file1098 9.pdf
Johnson, S.W. (2005) “Characteristics of effective health care managers”, Health Care Manager, 24 (2), 124-128.

Kerr, S. (2002) ‘Tear Down These Walls! How To Leverage Intellectual Capital’, Balanced Scorecard Report, July-August.

Kotter, J.P. (1990) A Force For Change: How Leadership Differs from Management, Simon and Schluster, New York.

Kotter, J. P., (2001) “What leaders really do?” Harvard Business Review, Vol. 79 Issue 11, p.85-96.

Kouzes, J.M. and Posner, B.Z. (1989) The Leadership Challenge – How to Get Extraordinary Things Done in Organizations, Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco.

Kubicek, J. (2011) Leadership is Dead: How Influence is Reviving it, Howard Books, New York.

Kubr, M. and Prokopenko, J. (1989) Diagnosing management training and development needs: concepts and techniques, Geneva, International Labour Organization.

Lawrence, P.R. (2010) Driven to Lead: Good, Bad and Misguided Leadership, John Wiley and Sons, San Francisco.

Longenecker, C. and Pinkel, G. (1997) ‘Coaching to win at work’, Manage, Volume 48, Issue 2.

Malik, F. (2009) Managing Performing Living: Effective Management for a New Era, Campus Verlag, Chicago.

Menkes, J. (2011) “Management Thinking May be Blinding Leadership”, HBR Blog, accessed on 19/03/12:

Murray (2010) “What is the Difference Between Management and
Pascale, R. (1991) Managing On The Edge, USA, Penguin Books.

Predpall , D.F. (1994), “Developing Quality Improvement Processes In Consulting Engineering Firms”, Journal of Management in Engineering, pp 30-31, May-June 1994.

Rost, J.C. (1993) Leadership for the twenty-first century, Greenwood Publishing Group, Westport.

Ridderstrale, J. and Nordstrom, K. (2002) Funky Business, 2nd Edition, Financial Times Prentice Hall.

Rothstein, M.G. and Burke, R.J. (2010) Self-Management and Leadership Development, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Publishing.

Ryan, R. (2007) Leadership Development: A Guide for HR and Training Professionals, Burlington MA, Routledge.

Senge, P. Ross, R. Smith, B. Roberts, C. and Kleiner, A. (1994) The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook: Tools, techniques and reflections for building a learning organization’, London, Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Leadership & Change Management Essay
  • Essay about Management and Leadership
  • Leadership and management Essay
  • Leadership and Management Essay
  • Management and Leadership Research Paper
  • Leadership vs. Management Essay
  • Management versus leadership Research Paper
  • Leadership: Strategic Management and Company Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free