UNIT 31 LEADERSHIP
Meaning of Leadership
Functions of Leaders
31.5.1 Leaders as Executive
3 1 S.2 Leaders as Teacher
3 1.1 1
Techniques of Leadership
Styles of Leadership
Hazards of Leadership
Let Us Sum Up
Some Useful Books
Answers to Check Your Progress Exercises
After studying this unit you should be able to:
* explain theories of leadership and styles of leaders
describe the functions and qualificaiions of leaders
discuss the techniques of Ieadership; and
explain the problems and hazards of leadership.
The most irnpo~-rant in the public service is to guide and direct work of the group as a task
whole cowards desired objectives. Leadership assumes much more importance in the modem government since the size and the number of organisations continue to grow. Further, there is a need for effective participation of hundreds and thousands of individuals who are continually joining the organisation with little prior knowledge of what the organisations are striving to do. They involve in more and more complex functions of individual duties.
A combination of several factors separates the individual members more and more from a personal connection with the organisation he joins. The tie becomes impersonal cold and un-inspiring. Generally, in many Government organisations work is divided departmentally. Each will work independently. To provide link there is a need for a leader. Again, the division of labour tends to separate and isolate individual members from the central purpose. In every organisation the tendency is both for the departmental heads and for the rank and file members to see the organisation's problems in terms of primarily of their functional effort. Only competent leaders can correct the tendencies which functionalism and division of labour create. The leader alone can keep tiie entire group committed to the goals whiclr could produce the best results. Thus, the multiplication of organisations, functions, departmnents, and subordinate geographic units lead to [he increased importance of leadership. In this connection it is necessary to mention that formerly it was thought born leaders were enough to handle the situation. Now the scene underwent a change. The demand is for effective leaders in many fields, on many fronts and at successive levels of authority. There are not enough born leaders to go round. We have to develop them.
In view of our need the idea of leadership should also change. We do not look towards a unique individual set apart with umsual personal qualities. Organisations requires people who can adminisler it.
In this connection it is necessary to clarify certain doubts. Generally, leadership tends to be expressed in terns of power to command or ability to dominate. Commanding by itself is not adequate as a basis for getting things done. Command is an exercise of power over people. But leadership is interested in how people can be brought to work together for a common end effectively and happily. It implieb the use and crearion of power with people. It is conce~ned
about the process by which result is auained. Thus, we rnay cor~clude that
in every organisation the whole man has to be appealed to and persuaded to do the job. There is n need for total involvement in the organisation. This will be ensured only by a good leader.
Let us try to define leadership. Evcry executive whether he deals with the people directly or indirectly is potentially in a position to lead people. He has the task of bringing them into an effective working harmony. To achieve this, there is a faclor known as leadership. Leadership is defined as the activity of influencing people to cooperate towards some goal which they come to find desirable....
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