Leadership The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals.
Use of authority inherent in designated formal rank to obtain compliance from organizational members.
Traits Theories of Leadership
Leadership Traits: • Ambition and energy • The desire to lead • Honest and integrity
Theories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from nonleaders.
• Intelligence • High self-monitoring • Job-relevant knowledge
Trait Theories Limitations:
• No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations. • Traits predict behavior better in “weak” than “strong” situations. • Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits.
• Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders.
Behavioral Theories of Leadership Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from nonleaders.
• Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made. • Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught.
Ohio State Studies
The extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of subordinates in the search for goal attainment.
Consideration The extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinate’s ideas, and regard for their feelings.
University of Michigan Studies
Emphasizing interpersonal relations; taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual differences among members. Production-Oriented Leader One who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job.
The Managerial Grid
(Blake and Mouton)
Development-Oriented Leader One who values experimentation, seeking new ideas, and generating and