Confession by inducement, threat or promise when irrelevant in criminal proceeding - A confession made by an accused person is irrelevant in a criminal proceeding, if the making of the confession appears to the Court to have been caused by any inducement, threat or promise, 1having reference to the charge against the accused person, proceeding from a person in authority and sufficient, in the opinion of the Court, to give the accused person grounds, which would appear to him reasonable, for supposing that by making it he would gain any advantage or avoid any evil of a temporal nature in reference to the proceeding against him. COMMENTS
Extra judicial confession
Extra-judicial confession made to village Administrative Officer by accused is admissible; Shiv Kumar v. State by Inspector of Police, AIR 2006 SC 653. It is difficult to rely upon the extra judicial confession as the exact words or even the words as nearly as possible have not been reproduced. Such statement cannot be said to be voluntary so the extra judicial confession has to be excluded from the purview of consideration for bring home the charge; C.K. Raveendran v. State of Kerala, AIR 2000 SC 369. The extra-judicial confession cannot be sole basis for recording the confession of the accused, if the other surrounding circumstances and the materials available on the record do not suggest his complicity; Chaya Kant Nayak v. State of Bihar, (1997) 2 Crimes 297 (Pat). An extra-judicial confession, if it is voluntary truthful, reliable and beyond reproach, is an efficacious piece of evidence to establish the guilt of the accused and it is not necessary that the evidence of extra-judicial confession should be corroborated on material facts; Laxman v. State of Rajasthan, (1997) 2 Crimes 125 (Raj). Where confession was not disclosed to the wife of deceased but it was disclosed to the police officer and was not corroborated, the extrajudicial confession is not reliable; Surinder Kumar v. State of Punjab, AIR 1999 SC 215. An extra-judicial confession by its very nature is rather a weak type of evidence and requires appreciation with a great deal of care and caution where an extra-judicial confession is surrounded by suspicious circumstances, its credibility becomes doubtful and it loses its importance. The courts generally look for independent reliable corroboration before placing any reliance upon an extra-judicial confession; Balwinder Singh v. State of Punjab, (1995) Supp (4) SCC 259. It is well settled now that a retracted extra-judicial confession, though a piece of evidence on which reliance can be placed, but the same has to be corroborated by independent evidence. If the evidence of witness before whom confession made was unreliable and his conduct also doubtful and there is no other circumstance to connect accused with crime, conviction based solely on retracted extra-judicial confession is not proper and the accused is entitled to acquittal; Shakhram Shankar Bansode v. State of Maharashtra, AIR 1994 SC 1594. The extra-judicial confession not trustworthy cannot be used for corroboration of any other evidence; Heramba Brahma v. State of Assam, AIR 1982 SC 1595. Where confessional statement is inconsistent with medical evidence, conviction of accused solely based on extra-judicial confession is not proper; Chittar v. State of Rajasthan, 1994 Cr LJ 245 (SC). Tape-recording of confession denotes influence and involuntariness. Accused is entitled to be acquitted; State of Haryana v. Ved Prakash, 1994 Cr LJ 140 (SC). The confessional statement recorded by 1st Class Magistrate rightly held to be correct; Manguli Dei v. State of Orissa, 1989 Cr LJ 823: AIR 1989 SC 483. The general trend of the confession is substantiated by some evidence, tallying with the particulars of confession for conviction of the accused; Madi Ganga v. State of Orissa, AIR 1981 SC 1165: 1981 Cr LJ 628: (1981) 2 SCC 224: 1981 SCC (Cr) 411. When statement Amounts to confession
A statement in order...
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