Law Enforcement in a Democratic Society
ISBN 0-558-46766-0 Law Enforcement in the 21 Century, Second Edition, by Heath B. Grant and Karen J. Terry. Published by Allyn & Bacon. Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. st
Chapter Out line
INTRODUCTION The Themes of the Book The Police Function: Social Control and the Use of Force Policing Within the Rule of Law: The Challenges of Discretion The Delicate Balance: Crime Control versus Due Process The Levels of Law Enforcement Municipal Agencies County Agencies State Agencies Federal Agencies Department of Justice Department of Homeland Security Department of the Treasury U.S. Postal Service Tribal Agencies
● Describe the concept of linkage blindness and its importance in the criminal justice system. ● Understand the police role in maintaining social control. ● Explain why discretion is a necessary aspect of policing. ● Explain what is meant by the rule of law. ● Understand the role of law enforcement in the criminal justice system. ● Contrast the crime control and due process models. ● List the different levels of law enforcement. ● Explain how the events of September 11 changed the structure of law enforcement jurisdictions.
LINKAGES IN LAW ENFORCEMENT: An Introduction to the Linkage-Blindness Phenomenon LINKAGES IN LAW ENFORCEMENT: Coordination and Information Sharing Between Law Enforcement and the Rest of the Criminal Justice System Chapter Summary LINKING THE DOTS
Law Enforcement in the 21 Century, Second Edition, by Heath B. Grant and Karen J. Terry. Published by Allyn & Bacon. Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. st
Following the cataclysmic events of September 11, many people asked themselves, “How did this happen?” Despite incidents such as the 1995 bombing of the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, most Americans have viewed terrorism as a problem somewhere over there, such as in Israel, Northern Ireland, or Rwanda. People in the United States have always taken pride in the immense individual rights and freedoms they possess and that often are viewed as the fundamental premises upon which this country was built. In fact, Americans have generally disapproved of extensive domestic efforts that intrude on the ease of their day-today activities, preferring, for example, express check-ins at the airport over complete baggage checks. Prior to the attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon, neither the average American citizen nor the government was particularly concerned with the prospect of international terrorism on United States soil. This was the case even though a number of reports, such as the Hart–Rudman Commission on National Security in the Twenty-First Century, had concluded that the U.S. government had no organizational capacity to either prevent or respond to terrorist threats (Flynn 2001). Moreover, a 1999 government report intricately profiled the leading terrorists and terrorist groups around the world, specifying the kinds of risks that existed and how future acts might occur, demonstrating that the United States intelligence community was not completely blind to the potential threat of attack (Hudson 1999). However, in the wake of the destruction of September 11, all Americans are now faced with a sense of insecurity and vulnerability that will have an impact on the delicate balance the country has always known between order and individual freedoms. This affects all aspects of public and private life, including transforming the nature and function of how we view and conduct law enforcement, the subject of this book. Federal legislation, such as the USA PATRIOT Act of 20011 and the USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005, has formally acknowledged this shift by significantly widening the investigative authority of law enforcement agencies across the country. The USA PATRIOT Act is discussed in detail in Chapter 7. An abridged...
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