Community Problem-Solving Era (1980s to Present)
Since the early 1980s, police have gradually made their presence known to communities and citizens. The citizens play key role in solving crimes within the community; however there is barrier standing between them. The police have been coming with strategies focusing on breaking these barriers that began during the reform era. A rebirth of community policing was established in the 1980’s to reconnect the police and the public.
Community policing is best defined as a philosophy and a strategy which promotes community engagement, participation, and problem solving. It’s based on the assumption that the community and the police are one entity. The police’s image to the public is based on the public’s confidence in the integrity of the police and their exercised judgment.
In 1994 a new $32 billion crime bill was passed by congress and signed by the president. This bill was the government’s answer to the public who was in fear of crime, although the crime rate was declining from the early 90s. The bill resembled the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968. This act had little impact on crime reduction; it actually increased once the act went into effect.
The security industry grew rapidly during this time due to the limited resources for law enforcement. About 580,000 people were employed in public law enforcement and 1,500,000 people were employed in private security in 1991. It was estimated that by the year of 2000, private security personnel was estimated to outnumber law enforcement four to one. Jurisdictional Levels
Law enforcement is a function of the executive branch of government. It’s highly decentralized. Federal agencies have broad territorial jurisdiction and narrow subject matter jurisdiction. This means that federal agents have authority to operate anywhere in the United States or its territories but are limited in the type of laws that can enforce. State and local agencies have very...
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