1. …everything that has happened to us during the day. (grammar)
The has happened in this grammar structure is an intransitive verb as there is no action attached to the verb. This is the present perfect tense it is used to describe actions or events that are complete, but have a connection with the present. (Swan, M. 2004:438).
Concept questions (CQs):
Are the events finished? Yes.
Is there an action attached to the verb? No
Is the day in the past? No.
Auxiliary verb + past participle of intransitive verb has happened
Has is the 3rd person singular present indicative of have. Happened is the past participle of happen.
Sentence stress is placed on happened and the first syllable in happened is stressed.
1. Problem: Students may mispronounce happened with the /id/ or /t/ sound instead of the /d/ sound. A common mistake with past tense forms of regular verbs.
Solution: Show the phonetic spelling of happened and explain that we the use /id/ sound when the infinitive ends in /t/ or /d/. We use the /t/ sound when the infinitive ends in /p/, /k/, /θ/, /f/, /s/, /ƒ/, /tƒ/ (Parrot, M. 2004:405).
2. Problem: Students may use the verb have instead of its 3rd person singular present tense has.
Solution: Explain that have is used in the first person but in this case as we are using the third person has is used.
6. If scientists invented a pill which, if you took it, would keep you awake for ever, would you take it?
The if scientists invented a pill in this grammar structure is used to describe a situation which may exist in the future. When talking about a possible situation and its consequences we call this a conditional clause (Sinclair et al. 2004:349).
Concept Questions (CQs)
Have the scientists invented the pill yet? No.
Will scientists definitely invent the