Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1: What is Language Development?
Language is the communication of information through symbols arranged according to systematic rules. Speech and language are tools that humans use to share their feelings. Speech is talking, one way that a language can be expressed. In fact, language is a particular kind of system for encoding and decoding information.Language may also be expressed through writing or gestures in the case of people who have neurological disorders and may depend upon eye blinks or mouth movements to communicate.
Language development is a process that starts from early age of every person’s life, when a person begins to acquire language by learning it as it is spoken and by imitation. Children's language development moves from simple to complex. Infants start without language. Children of four months of age, can read lips and discriminate speech sounds. The language that infants speak is called babbling. Infants use their bodies, vocal cries and other preverbal vocalizations to communicate their wants, needs and dispositions. Even though most children begin to vocalize and eventually verbalize at various ages and at different rates, they learn their first language without conscious instruction from parents or caretakers. 1.2: Criteria of Language development
To parents, the sounds of their infant babbling and cooing are music to their ears. These sounds also serve an important function. They make the first step on the road to the development of the language. There are different criteria in Language development. Just as cooing, echoing, babbling Cooing: Cooing means, to express or utter with soft murmuring sounds. A 2-month-old baby starts to pay more attention to her world. Most of all, baby loves the sound of mother’s voice and follows it around the room with real concentration. Mother’s different tones of voice fascinate her; she'll respond to her high-pitched, singsong tone just as readily as to mother’s calm, soothing voice. Better yet, baby's already talking back with a variety of sweetly-pitched coos. But when baby isn't calm and cooing, she might be fussy. Echoing : Another criteria of language development is echoing When others make different sound in front of the baby, the baby tries to produce these sound in many ways they try to echo those sounds back in their own way after hearing others. Babbling: Babblings are meaningless speechless sounds made by children from around the age of 3month to 1 year. While babbling the baby may produce at one time or another any of the sounds found in own languages, not just the one to which they are exposed. An infant’s babbling increasingly reflects the specific language being spoken in the infants environment, initially in terms of pitch and tone and eventually in terms of specific sounds.
Production of language: By the time when children are approximately 1 year old, they stop producing sounds that are not in the language to which they have been exposed. It is then a short step to the production of actual words. After the age of 1 year, children begin to learn more complicated forms of language. They produce two words combinations, the building blocks of sentences and sharply increase the number of different words they are able to use. By age 2, the average child has a vocabulary of more than 50 words. Just 6 months later, that vocabulary has grown to several 100 words. By age 3, children learn to make plurals by adding “s” Here, a table is given below based on the language development of children- Age of Child
Typical Language Development
Vocalization with intonation
Responds to his name
Responds to human voices without visual cues by turning his head and eyes •
Responds appropriately to friendly and angry tones...
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