landslide problem

Topics: Groundwater, Water, Geotechnical engineering Pages: 40 (4912 words) Published: September 25, 2014
Learning to live with

LANDSLIDES
Natural Hazards and Disasters

For Teachers and Educators

Ministry of Education and National Institute of Education
Education for Social Cohesion, Disaster Risk Management
and Psycho-social Care

Learning to live with

LANDSLIDES
Natural Hazards and Disasters

2006
Sri Lankan-German Development Cooperation
Supported by
The German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and implemented with assistance of the German Technical Cooperation - GTZ

Originally developed by
the Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre, Thailand. (2002)
Adapted for Sri Lanka
by
Kumari M. Weerasinghe

Scientist, Landslide Studies and Services Division
National Building Research Organisation
(Texts)

Anuradha Malalasekara

Lecturer, Department of Linguistic,
University of Kelaniya, Daligama, Kelaniya
(Texts)

Evangeline Ekanayake

GTZ Technical Advisor Psycho-social Care
(Texts on Psycho-social Care)

Susil Jayashantha Perera
(Illustrations)

In cooperation with
Faculty of Science and Technology,
National Institute of Education
2006

FOREWoRD

CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION................................................................................... 1
2. LANDSLIDES IN SRI LANKA.............................................................. 2
3. CAUSES OF LANDSLIDES.................................................................. 3 .
3.1 Manmade Causes........................................................................................... 4 3.2 Natural Factors.............................................................................................. 5 3.3 Combination of Factors................................................................................. 6

4. Types of Landslides and Slope Failures........................... 8
5. DIRECT EFFECTS. ................................................................................ 9 .
6. INDIRECT EFFECTS............................................................................. 9
7. LOSSES DUE TO LANDSLIDES........................................................ 10 7.1 Direct Losses............................................................................................... 10 7.2 Indirect Losses............................................................................................. 13

8. INDICATORS OF LANDSLIDE PHENOMENON............................. 14
9. PREPAREDNESS.................................................................................. 15 9.1 Landslide preparedness measures .............................................................. 15 9.2 Measures to reduce the likelihood of landslides ........................................ 16

10.GENERAL ADVICE............................................................................. 18
11.AFTER A LANDSLIDE........................................................................ 25

1. LANDSLIDES
A landslide occurs when part of a natural slope is unable to support its own weight. For example, soil material on a slippery surface underneath, can become heavy with rainwater and slide down due to its increased weight. A landslide is a downward or outward movement of soil, rock or vegetation, under the influence of gravity. This movement can occur in many ways. It can be a fall, topple, slide, spread or flow. The speed of the movement may range from very slow to rapid. The mass of moving material can destroy property along its path of movement and cause death

to people and livestock. Although landslides usually
occur at steep slopes, they may also occur in areas
with low relief or slope gradient. Listed below
are some examples.









Cutting failures can occur during highway excavations, building construction, etc.
River bank failures
Lateral spreading of soil material
Collapse of mines, waste piles and garbage fills
Slope failures associated with quarries...
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