Landing Gear

Topics: Internal combustion engine, Combustion, Gasoline Pages: 64 (19697 words) Published: June 22, 2013
Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communications DETEC Federal Office of Civil Aviation FOCA Aviation Policy and Strategy Environmental Affairs



Purpose of this paper: This paper aims to inform interested parties about the development of aircraft piston engine emission factors. These have been measured and are provided by Swiss FOCA for the primary purpose of emission inventory calculations. Furthermore, FOCA presents findings about emissions performance and in-flight operation of aircraft piston engines and recommendations for emissions reduction.

33-05-003 Piston Engine Emissions_Swiss FOCA_Summary Report_070709_rit

Reference: 0 / 3/33/33-05-003.022

FOCA, CH-3003 Bern

Reference: 0 / 3/33/33-05-003 ECERT Contact person: Theo Rindlisbacher Tel. +41 31 325 93 76, Fax +41 31 325 92 12, This document has been released for publication by FOCA, Aviation Policy and Strategy, Director M. Zuckschwerdt, 13.06.2007


Federal Office of Civil Aviation (FOCA), Environmental Affairs, CH-3003 Bern

Reference: 0 / 3/33/33-05-003.022

ABSTRACT According to Swiss aviation law (SR 748.0, LFG Art. 58), emissions from all engine powered aircraft have to be evaluated and tested. The legal requirement also incorporates aircraft engines that are currently unregulated and do not have an ICAO1 emissions certification – like piston, helicopter, turboprop and small jet engines. Credible emissions data are necessary for emission and immission inventory purposes, environmental impact assessments and for issues directly related to environmental protection. Up to now, there have only been few emissions data available for aircraft piston engines. This report tries to fill this gap of knowledge in a comprehensive approach. The following aspects are documented in this report and in its Appendices: • • • • • Emissions performance for a wide range of existing aircraft piston engines. A methodology for cost effective standardized on ground emission measurements of aircraft piston engines. A methodology for the calculation of aircraft piston engine emissions. General principles of aircraft piston engine combustion and the effect of pilot operations on emissions. Research for emission reduction through optimization of pilot operations, new aircraft piston engine concepts, technological improvements and the use of cleaner AVGAS.

The presented material serves FOCA for • • • • Calculation of more complete aviation emission inventories in the context of legal national and international environmental requirements. Observation of the environmental impact of piston engine aircraft. Reduction of piston engine aircraft emissions. Pilot education.

As far as measurements are concerned, FOCA plans to increase the number of measured engines in the future. For other engine families without an ICAO emissions certification, like helicopter turbines and small jet engines, there is still a lack of emissions data and FOCA plans to work on respective packages, based on its aviation law.

June, 2007

Theo Rindlisbacher


International Civil Aviation Organization

Federal Office of Civil Aviation (FOCA), Environmental Affairs, CH-3003 Bern

Reference: 0 / 3/33/33-05-003.022

CONTENTS 1. General information
1.1 Background 1.2 Main scope and objectives of the project


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2. Summary of results 2.1 FOCA data sheets and their practical application 2.1.1 General methodology for emissions calculation 2.1.2 Suggested times in mode for emissions calculation 2.1.3 Cruise emissions factors 2.1.4 Calculated LTO and 1 hour cruise emissions on data sheets 2.1.5 Data quality and accuracy 2.1.6 Data download

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2.2 General findings about aircraft piston engine emissions
2.2.1 Combustion basics a) What goes in? Composition of AVGAS 100LL b) How much air to make the fire? c) What comes...

Bibliography: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) Bombardier-Rotax, engine test stand data, property of Rotax, 2005 Chevron Products Company, Technical Review "aviation fuels", 2000 DLR, German Aerospace Centre, Institute of Combustion Technology, C. Wahl/M. Kapernaum, written and oral communication, 2004 – 2007 Hjelmco Oil, Aviation Gasolines, AVGAS 91/96UL description, Edition V, 1997 Hjelmco Oil, Aviation Gasolines, turbo fuels & lubricants, Fuel Certificate, 2005 HORIBA, Mexa 1170 HFID manual, 2006 ICAO Annex 16, volume 2, aircraft emissions, second edition, July 1993, amendment 5 Intertek Caleb Brett, C-H relation measurements for test fuels, FOCA property, 2006 Kas Thomas, Light Plane Maintenance, 2000, ISBN 0-965196-0-6 Porsche, PFM3200, Abgaskonzentrationen, BAZL, 1988 Technotest, Stargas 898 manual, 2003 Textron-Lycoming, Power Curves O-360 and IO-360 series engines, provided hand written documents TSI Incorporated, SMPS and EEPS functional drawings, 2007 US EPA, Control of air pollution from aircraft and aircraft engines, federal register, volume 38, number 136, July 17, 1973 US FAA, Advisory Circular AC34-1A US FAA, Federal Aviation Engine Emissions Databank, November 26, 1991
Federal Office of Civil Aviation (FOCA), Environmental Affairs, CH-3003 Bern
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