top-rated free essay

Lab Report on Urine for A&P II

By Sandmoton Jul 22, 2004 889 Words
Laboratory Report on Urine Examination


When testing urine the test results may provide information regarding the status of carbohydrate metabolism and kidney function.

The kidney glomeruli act as ultrafilters for the plasma protein; however as much as 150 mg/dl of protein may normally be excreted into the urine. In glomerular proteinuria, an increase in glomerular permeability occurs, resulting in an increase of urine proteins. High urine protein concentration therefore may indicate proteinuria.

Blood glucose concentration above the renal threshold will overflow into the urine. This situation normally arises in diabetes patients. In renal diabetes, the renal threshold is reduced to the point where sugar appears in the urine despite normal levels being present in the blood. In both situations, monitoring of urine glucose becomes important.

In the following exercises it will be determined, by using three simulated urine specimens, what color, pH, specific gravity, glucose, and protein has on urine. Urine Normal is normal, and Urine high (positive) on all tests. In part 2, unknown simulated urine will be tested and determine the probable disorders.

Materials and Methods: Part 1

Color: Record the color of each simulated urine (Low, Normal, and High) in Table 1.

pH: 1. Obtain three pH indictor strips and label each to match the containers (L,N,H).

2. Test each simulated urine (Low, Normal, and High) by dipping the appropriate pH strip into it

three consecutive times.

3. Shake off excess liquid and compare the color of the strip to the colors on the pH chart. The

color that most closely matches your strip corresponds to the pH of the simulated urine.

4. Record each pH in Table 1.

The pH of normal urine averages 6.0, which is slightly acidic. Certain foods and diseases that can affect urine pH.

Specific Gravity

1.The instructor will either instruct you to calibrate the hydrometer or provide you with a calibration factor. Record the calibration factor in Table 1.

2.Obtain the urine hydrometer and jar and rinse both pieces well. Fill the jar three-fourths full of Urine Low. Place the hydrometer in the jar so that it is not touching the sides and read the level of urine on the hydrometer scale. Record the measured (base) urine specific gravity in Table 1.

3.The instructor will give instructions on whether to add or subtract from the reading of the calibration factor. Record the adjusted urine specific gravity in Table 1.

4.Remove the hydrometer and pour the simulated urine sample back into the container.

5. Rinse the hydrometer and jar well.

6. Repeat steps 2 to 5 with Urine Normal and Urine High.

Specific gravity varies according to fluid intake and can also be affected by diseases.


1. Using a dropping pipet, place 5 drops of urine into a glass vial.

2. Rinse the dropper thoroughly with water and add 10 drops of water to the vial.

3. Drop one Clinitest® tablet into the vial. Place the vial on the tabletop and observe the reaction. Caution: the glass vial will become very hot during the chemical reaction.

4. After the reaction has stopped, wait 15 seconds. Shake gently to mix the contents. Caution: do not allow the contents of the vial to come into contact with your skin or eyes. Compare the color to the Clinitest® color chart.

5. Record the results of the test for glucose (positive or negative) in Table 1. Glucose (sugar) should not be detected in normal urine. The presence of glucose usually indicates diabetes mellitus, a severe metabolic disorder due to defective carbohydrate utilization.


1. Using a 10 ml graduated cylinder, add 1 ml urine to a clean glass vial.

2. Rinse the graduated cylinder and measure 2 ml biuret reagent. Note the pale blue color of the biuret reagent.

3. Add the biuret reagent to the urine vial.

4. Gently swirl the vial to mix the contents. After 10 minutes hold the test tube against a white background and observe the color. A color change from light blue to a pale violet indicates the presence of protein.

5. Record the results of the test for protein (positive or negative) in Table 1.

Normally, protein should not be detected in the urine.


Urine Test Low Normal High Urine A Urine B

Color Light Yellow Light Yellow Clear (White) Clear (no color) Pink

pH 3 7 8 5 8

Specific gravity:

Base 1.02 1.025 1.029 1.032 1.034

Glucose Negative Negative Present Present Negative

Protein Negative Negative Negative Negative Positive

Table 1


From the above data, it can be determined that not all of the urinalysis results were normal. The sample Urine High and Urine A is positive for diabetes mellitus. The sample of Urine B could belong to someone who is on a high protein diet, starvation, fasting or has severe anemia.


Test Tube Color

Begin Color Change Contain Protein Digestion

# 1 Clear Cloudy, Light purple No

# 2 Clear Same, Light purple No

# 3 Clear Same, Light pink/purple Yes


From the above data, it is obvious that test tube # 3 is positive for protein digestion. Enzymes all work best at an optimum temperature that is usually body temperature at 37ºC. If the temperature that the enzyme has to work at gets too high, normally 40ºC it will start to become denatured and therefore no longer work on its substrate as the active site has changed shape. In addition, enzymes usually work best at an optimum pH level, this is normally seven because enzymes are proteins which are damaged by very acidic or very alkaline conditions.

The hypothesis is proven that when both hydrochloric acid and pepsin is combined that it effectively digests protein.

Cite This Document

Related Documents

  • Urine Analysis Lab Report

    ...Urine Analysis Lab Report Objectives: To learn what tests can analyze a person’s urine and what they find Chem – 9 Test Specific Density Microscope Analysis of Urine To analyze a urine sample Examine presence of normal/abnormal elements Use urine sample to find specific gravity, pH, and chemical parts To have a better understandi...

    Read More
  • lab report

    ...environment of the body by selectively excreting or retaining various substances according to specific body needs. The process of urine formation and adjustment of blood composition involves three processes: glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and tubular secretion. The first part of the process of urine formation occurs in the glomerul...

    Read More
  • A&P lab report

    ...send signals to the medulla of the brain stem. The medulla will then stimulate the autonomic nervous system to adjust the mean arterial pressure by altering both the force and speed of the heart's contractions, as well as the total peripheral resistance. The most important arterial baroreceptors are located in the left and right carotid sinuses ...

    Read More
  • Lab report

    ...Table of Contents Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………………2 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………..2 Background………………………………………………………………………...

    Read More
  • Lab Report

    ... The Effect of Metal Ions on Lichens Casey Stinnett ESC 1510 October 30, 2014 Introduction Lichens are a sybiotic association of fungus (mycobiont) and algae (Pediastrum boryanum . The fungus engulfs the algae, then supplies carbs, nitrogen, and vitamins while the algae photosynthesizes. This unusual relationship enables the li...

    Read More
  • A and P Lab

    ...Renal System Physiology Exercise 9 page. 121 SC 245 L Date: 12/18/2011 Point Break down: 100 points Questions: 60 points Data/Results: 15 points Summarizing activities: 25 points Introduction: In this lab we will learn how the kidney processes blood and produces urine. Activity 1: Investigating the Effect of Flow Tube Radius on Glomerula...

    Read More
  • Chemistry of Urine Lab Report

    ...CHEMISTRY College of Art and Sciences Visayas State University Chemistry 31a Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment No. 09 CHEMISTRY OF URINE Name: Artajo, Zeal Conbrio A. DVM-2 Date performed: Feb. 26, 2013 Group: 6 Date submitted: March 5, 2013 ...

    Read More
  • lab report

    ...Daphny Maldonado Bio Lab 2107 Kiah Britton W 10-12:30 Is H20 Bad for You? Abstract: In the village of Gopher Hollow there’s a cluster of Blue Baby Syndrome. There were four infants affected by this cluster. The families from the infants would collect their water from wells. We have to determine what’s the source of the high levels of...

    Read More

Discover the Best Free Essays on StudyMode

Conquer writer's block once and for all.

High Quality Essays

Our library contains thousands of carefully selected free research papers and essays.

Popular Topics

No matter the topic you're researching, chances are we have it covered.