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Lab Report: Appendicular Skeleton

By blondie1987 Jul 07, 2012 1127 Words
Lab Report: Appendicular Skeleton

Please fill out this report and submit it to the dropbox. Do not hand in your own form. It will not be graded and you will receive a zero for the lab.

You must get all parts correct to get credit for the question.

* Please note that although you do not hand in items in observations, it is very important to do these as you may see some of these items on future/associated lab quizzes or be asked about some of these concepts on unit assignments. It is strongly recommended that you draw, label, diagram, etc. your observations or examples of the subjects covered in this lab as this encourages the learning process.

Step 1: Bone Identification
Assignment: Observations: (NO SUBMISSION)
Try to label/identify appendicular bones of a human skeleton. Flash cards and self quizzes often help students to quickly identify bones that will likely be seen on lab quizzes. Once major bones are identified, work on identifying major markings on each of these bones (i.e. spine of the scapula, greater trochanter of the femur). Drawings DO NOT have to be submitted.

Step 2: Questions
Activity 1: Bone Structure/Classification

A. Describe two functions of spongy bone.

Two functions of spongy bone are that it helps produce red blood cells and helps with the exchange of ions. It also helps form bone and store fats.

B. What makes compact bone hard?

Mature bone cells make compact bone hard.

C. Name 4 categories of bones and give an example of each.

Short- Tarsals
Long- Femur
Irregular- Sacrum
Flat- Scapula

Activity 2: Girdles


A.What bones are found in the pelvic girdle? Is it meant for mobility or stability?

The bones that are found in the pelvic girdle are the ilium, ischium and the pubis. It is meant for stability.

B.What bones are found in the pectoral girdle? Is it meant for mobility or stability?

The scapula and the clavicle are found in the pectoral girdle. It is meant for mobility.

C. Propose a reason why a woman would be more susceptible than a man to injure her sacroiliac (SI) joint, a joint that should be very stable.

One reason a woman is more susceptible to injuring her sacroiliac joint is because of pregnancy. During pregnancy the pelvis stretches to allow birth and this causes wear and tear of the sacroiliac joint. The more pregnancies a woman has the better chance she has of injuring her SI joint.

Activity 3: Identifying Synovial Joints


A.Which type of synovial joint has the least amount of movement? Which type of synovial joint is most movable?

The carpals of the wrist have the least amount of movement. The hips are the most moveable.

B. List 6 types of synovial joints and give an example of each.

Gliding joints- ankle
Hinge joints- elbow
Pivot joints- proximal radioulnar joint
Condyloid joints- wrist
Saddle joints- thumb
Ball and socket joints- hip

C.What are the four structural characteristics that all synovial joints share?

Four structural characteristics that all synovial joints share are the inner layer of the capsule has a membrane called the synovial membrane which produces a lubricating fluid call synovial fluid which has the job of reducing friction. Their joint surfaces are covered by two layers of an articular capsule which creates the joint cavity. The capsule is reinforced with ligaments and may contain fluid filled sacs called bursae that help reduce friction where tendons move across bones. Also the articular hyaline cartilage covers the surfaces of the bones forming the joint.

Activity 4: Body Movements


A.Hinge joints like the elbow and knee have limited movement. Why are these types of joints more prone to injury?

Elbows are more prone to injury because they have limited movement but are forced and therefore over-extended. Knees are more prone to injury because of the soft tissue. Excessive weight, flexion and extension can cause injury.

B.When you perform flexion on your arm, the biceps muscle (on the anterior of the arm) contracts. What happens to the triceps muscle (on the posterior of the arm) as you do this action?

When one flexes their arm, the triceps harden, contract and lengthen. The muscle is unable to move once it is flexed.

C.Both the shoulder and the hip are ball and socket joints. Why does the shoulder have a greater range of motion than the hip?

The shoulder has a greater range of motion than the hip because the hip has a deeper socket. Whereas the shoulder has more of a shallow socket which allows more room for the ball to rotate. In the shoulder the ball is bigger than the socket which allows for more range of motion.

Activity 5: Structure of Cartilage

Observations: (NO SUBMISSION) Be able to identify different types of cartilage.

A. Matching Question:Using the key, match each type of cartilage described below:

Key: 1. Elastic cartilage
2. Hyaline cartilage
3. Fibrocartilage

3. Resists Compression
2. Most Abundant
1. Found in the epiglottis

B. What effect would the loss of articular cartilage have on a joint? What is this condition called?

Loss of articular cartilage may result in Osteoarthritis. Articular cartilage acts as a cushion within the joint. When the cartilage is damaged or worn away, the affected joint area can become painful, sore, and may have limited range of motion. Also, because there are no blood vessels within the actual articular cartilage, it can take a significant amount of time to heal.

Clinical Conclusion:
The knee is the largest joint in the body. Its structures are also very susceptible to injury. List three different types of structures/tissues in the knee and describe an injury that could happen involving each of these different types of structures/tissues.

Tibia- One injury that could occur is a tibial shaft fracture that occurs between the knee and ankle joints. Patella- Patellar subluxation is when a person has a painful knee condition where the patella (knee cap) does not stay in place and can slide from side to side. Meniscus- Meniscal tears are among the most common knee injuries. A meniscal tear is a tear in the cartilage that runs between the thighbone and shinbone.

Study Hint:
I encourage you to draw the slides on your own and label any identifying features. Drawing uses different areas of the brain and helps LEARNING the material rather than memorizing material. This is an ongoing effective learning approach. The drawings will not be turned in, however. Lab quizzes will often have pictures represented from all areas, not just the ones that have items to be submitted.

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