Identifying Unknown Enterobacteriaceae Sample with API 20-E Test
The API System test conducted in class was used to analyze the unknown species procured from lab. The sample collected was extracted from intestinal region. The API rapid identification test, which consists of 20 microtubules, permitted the class to investigate a bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. Each microtubule examines a specific attribute of the bacteria, organizing it into a dichotomy and generating a distinct code. This test concluded that the micro biota obtained was Morganella morganii, a gram-negative rod bacterium. Introduction:
The Enterobacteriaceae species are gram- negative rod bacteria, demonstrating red, pinkish rod-like shapes on slides. These family share similar characteristics: they are non-sporulating, facultative aerobes, and they utilize MacConkey agar for differential purposes. Furthermore, Enterobacteriaceae family is catalase positive while it results as oxidase negative. Although they have several overall commonalities, this species can be divided into enteric bacilli and enteric pathogens. Enteric bacilli refer to bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract that compose of the bodies’ normal flora. Bacteria that are categorized as enteric bacilli are but not limited to be Escherichia Coli, Proteus, and Serrati. Conversely, enteric pathogens are defined as the gastrointestinal infection and can cause disease. Some of these pathogens are Shigella, Salmonella, and E. Coli, which propagates dysentry, thypoid fever, and/ or urinary tract infection, respectively. These infections “have evolved a remarkable array of virulence traits that enable them to colonize the intestinal tract, adhere to or efface the epithelium, and/or deliver one or more enterotoxins or cytotoxins. These enterotoxins or cytotoxins directly signal epithelial secretion... [placing] damage to the epithelial cells or intestinal barrier function (e.g., Clostridium difficile toxins, shiga and shiga-like toxins), or recruitment of secondary cells or mediators. Which then trigger intestinal secretion, inflammation, or damage?” (Guerrant, R., p S331, 2014). Discerning the difference between the two enteric bacteria is vital in patient care and treatment.
Similar to the aforementioned pathogens, Morganella morganii is a Gram negative rod bacteria located in the intestines of animals i.e. mammals, reptiles and humans. According to MedScape, this organism results in “an uncommon cause of community-acquired infection and is most often encountered in postoperative and other nosocomial settings.” M. morganii is affiliated with nosocomial settings and are prevalent in post-operative patients. Additionally, patients who acquire this bacterium suffer from urinary tract infection. It’s pertinent to distinguish between the bacteria and their pathophysiology especially in clinical milieu. M. morganii are resistant to penicillin and beta-lactamase inhibitors; the hospitals acquired usually are susceptible to a combination of medicine, i.e. tazobactam and piperacillin are an excellent concoction to attack the enzyme. (MedScape) The API test facilitates in determining the bacteria fast which promotes an immediate turnover for rehabilitation. The test is inoculated and within duration of 24 hours while the reagents are concurrently added the results inform what the patient may be diagnosed with. As patients enter these environments, it’s dire for medical personnel to identify the specific diseases they acquired.
Materials and Methods:
List of materials used for the API-20E testing.
The API-20E system (API) is a test that is usually used for identification and differentiation of members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The API is a plastic strip holding twenty miniature test tubes that is inoculated with a saline suspension and incubated in a humidity chamber for...
References: 1. "Oxidase Test." Welcome to Microbugz. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2014.
2. Miller, James R., MD. "Morganella Infections." Medscape. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2014
3. Guerrant. R. “How Intestinal Bacteria Cause Diseases” http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/179/supplement_2/s331.full Web. 02 Dec. 2014
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