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Know the Structure of Education from Early Years to Post Compulsory Education

By MarianneSeymour Sep 08, 2013 3755 Words
Unit 6
SCHOOLS AS ORGANISATIONS
EARLY YEARS
Registered childminders
Registered childminders look after one or more children in a domestic setting usually their own home for payment. They can look after babies from 6 weeks old to 7 year olds. There are strict ratios that have to be adhered to, so that the childminder can give the best care possible to the children. The childminders are inspected by Ofsted in England and Estyn - CSSIW (care and social services inspectorate in Wales) in Wales, to ensure they provide a safe and stimulating environment for the children that they care for. The childminder will have made their own set of policies and be familiar with the National minimum standards for regulated childcare. Have Paediatric First aid training, Food health and Hygiene Certificate and Safe Guarding Children / Child Protection Certificates that are approved by their local authority. Playgroups

Playgroups provide short sessions of childcare, usually 2 – 3 hours, during mornings or afternoons. Often community led and require parental involvement. The children play with toys and parents lead activities – crafts, drawing, stories and singing. Refreshments are available. They are held in schools, community halls, and community centres. Parents can apply for funding from different sources to help with buying toys and equipment for these sessions. Sure Start Centres

Sure Start Centres provide integrated services for young children and their families. They are accessible to all and support the families in greatest need. The main purpose of the centres is to improve outcomes for young children and their families with a focus on the disadvantaged, so children are equipped for life and ready for school, no matter what their back ground or family circumstances. The Department of Education has worked with the local authorities and representatives from the Early Years sector to develop the core purpose for the centres and outline how the centres can best achieve it. The centres offer a range of services for children under 5 years old and their families. Integrated early education and childcare, support for parents, child and family health services, helping parents into work. Nurseries

There are privately run day nurseries or college, university or work place day nurseries. Children can attend nursery from 6 weeks old to 5 years old. Parents can choose from all day care or part day care. It is a provision that working parents couldn’t be without and other parents use to introduce their children to a safe environment of playing and learning. Nurseries are open long hours 8am – 6pm some even longer. Monday to Friday and some on Saturdays to help support parents working different work patterns. They are often open most weeks of the year except for special holidays. The nurseries will usually have separate rooms for different aged children. A room for babies up to 2 years with a staff to child ratio of 1:3. A room for 2 to 3 year olds or 2 to 5 year olds depending on whether the nursery has a separate pre-school unit. Some nurseries encourage the inclusion of children with SEN and disabilities and provide the specified staffing ratios, training for staff and specific equipment needed. Some nurseries have a pre-school unit for 3 – 5 year olds to prepare them for school life. In Wales they would be incorporating themes from the Foundation Phase. All nurseries are inspected by Ofsted in England and the CSSIW in Wales to ensure a high quality of care is being given. All staff are CRB checked and have or are working towards the correct level of qualifications in child care. Pre-schools

Pre schools provide play and education for 2 to 5 year olds. They can be set up in a local authority primary school, in an independent school, in a community child care centre, child and family centres and run by a local authority social department, college, and university or workplace nursery. In England Ofsted are the inspectorate and Wales is Estyn. In Wales the pre- schools use the foundation phase to achieve an environment of enjoyable learning through play. In England the Foundation stage 1 follows the same ethos of learning through play and is for nursery and pre-school children though not compulsory. Children are entitled to free hours at a pre-school; this is funded by the government. The funding usually can be put into place for the term after the child is 3 years old until they start school in a nursery or reception class. Children do not have to have a preschool education, parents can decide whether they think their child would benefit from it or not. It is generally thought that children who attend a preschool setting benefit when starting school full time because buildings, routines and other children should be familiar to them. Nursery Class

A free part time or full time place is offered by the local authorities across England and Wales to children in a community to join a nursery class within a primary or infant school or a nursery school. In Wales a child can join the term after they are 3 years old. In Wales they are part of the Early Years Foundation Phase and in England part of the Foundation Stage 1. Reception Class

All children in the UK between the ages of 5 and 6 are entitled to a free place in a state school. Children when they start in a reception class are in full time education and expected to attend every day. In England they are in Foundation stage 2 and in Wales in the Foundation Phase. State maintained schools are funded by the Central Government via local authorities and do not charge fees to students. The local authority usually owns the land and buildings that the school is on and they pay for the staff of the school. The schools then have their own set or Governors who make decisions about the running of the school. Foundation Phase

The Foundation Phase is the statutory curriculum for all 3 to 7 year old children in Wales in both maintained and non-maintained settings. Children are given more opportunities to explore the world around them and understand how things work by taking part in practical activities that are relevant to their developmental stage. The Foundation Phase is based on the principle that early year’s provision should offer a sound foundation for the future, learning through a developmentally appropriate curriculum. It places a great emphasis on children learning by doing. Young children are given more opportunities to gain first hand experiences through play and active involvement rather than completing exercise books. They are given time to develop their speaking and listening skills and become confident in their writing and reading abilities. Mathematics will be more practical so that children can see how problems are solved and how important mathematics is in their everyday lives. There is more emphasis on children understanding how things work and on finding different ways of solving problems. The curriculum focuses on:-

Skills and understanding.
Personal, social, emotional, physical and intellectual well being so as to develop as a whole child. Positive attitudes to learning so that they enjoy and want to continue. Self esteem and self confidence to experiment, investigate, learn new things and form relationships. Creative, expressive and observational skills to encourage their development as individuals with different ways of responding to experiences. Activities in the outdoors where they have firsthand experience of solving real life problems and learn about conservation and sustainability.

SECONDARY EDUCATION

Voluntary Schools
Before the Education Act 1944, Voluntary Schools were those associated with a foundation, usually a religious group. The Act introduced two categories of maintained voluntary schools. Voluntary Controlled (VC) these had their costs met by the state, but are controlled by the local authority. Voluntary Aided (VA) these are partly funded by the state and a foundation. The foundation having a greater influence over the school. At the time most Roman Catholic Schools opted for a VA school, more than half Church of England Schools became VC. Today most VA and VC schools and some Trust schools are Faith Schools. Faith Schools is the common term used for schools with a designated religious character. The land and buildings of these schools is oft owned by a charity, often a religious organisation such as a church. Community and Community Special Schools

The category of Community School was introduced by the school Standards and Framework Act 1998. On the 1st September 1999 they replaced county schools. A Community School is the standard type of maintained school. A Community Special School differs from a Community School in that it caters solely for pupils with special educational needs. These schools may not be designated with a religious character. The Governing Body have a general responsibility for the conduct of the school with a view to promoting high standards of educational achievement. The local authority owns the land and buildings and employs the teaching staff, although the governing body has actual responsibility. Foundation and Trust Schools

Foundation Schools were set up by the Labour administration. They are run by a governing body which employs staff and sets the admissions criteria. The land and buildings are usually owned by the governing body or a charitable foundation. A Trust School is a type of Foundation School which forms a charitable trust with an outside partner – for example a business or educational charity aiming to raise standards in schools and explore new ways of working. The decision to become a Trust School is taken by the governing body and parents of the school. Free Schools

Free schools are state funded schools independent of a local authority control. They are run by teachers. They have the freedom to decide the length of the school day and term dates. They make their own curriculum and decide how to spend their money within the school. They can be set up by groups like a charity, university, independent school, community and faith groups, teachers, parents and businesses. Grammar Schools

They are the only state secondary schools that are allowed by law to select all their pupils on the grounds of academic ability. They only exist in Northern Ireland and parts of England that have not abolished the 11 plus entrance examination. Non Maintained Schools

Non maintained schools are independent of control by the LEA (Local Education Authority) although some academies retain some LEA influence. Independent Schools
An Independent School is usually run privately for profit where as a non maintained school is not run for profit, it is usually run by a charitable body. An Independent school is a school which is not dependent upon the national or local government for financing its operation and is instead operated by tuition charges, gifts and investments. An Independent School is defined as any school that provides full time education for five or more pupils of compulsory school age. In an independent school the governing body is responsible for the day to day running of the school. The head teacher, backed by the governing body employs the staff, determines the schools admission policies. Classes do not have to follow the National Curriculum. The ISI (Independent Schools Inspectorate) and sometimes Estyn inspect these schools.

City Technology Colleges
City Technology Colleges are independent non fee paying secondary schools for pupils of all abilities. The pupils follow a curriculum that is similar to the national curriculum, with particular emphasis on technology and practical skills. The Department of Education and commercial sponsors fund the college and it is run by the two parties. They are regularly checked by the Office for Standards in Education. Often their governors are directors of local or national businesses that are supporting the college financially. Academies

Academies are independently managed all ability schools. They are set up by sponsors from businesses, charities or voluntary groups in partnership with the Department of Education and LEA. In this partnership they fund the land and building together and the government covers the running costs. They have to meet the same National Curriculum core subject requirements as state schools and are inspected by Ofsted. Academies are self governing and most are constituted as registered charities or operational charities. The Academies Act 2010 sought to expand the number of academies with the introduction of Free Schools Programme. There are no academies in Wales; the Welsh Government has followed a policy of having a no academy status. Faith Schools

Faith Schools can be different kinds of schools – voluntary aided, free schools, academies, voluntary controlled but are associated with a particular religion. Faith Schools are mostly run like other state schools. They have to follow the national curriculum except for religious studies, where they are free to only teach about their own religion. The admissions criteria and staffing policies may be different too, although anyone can apply for a place. Maintained Boarding Schools

There are only 35 state maintained boarding schools in the UK. Tuition is free but there is a charge for the boarding element. They have excellent facilities and a high quality of teaching staff. Most schools take children aged 11 – 18, there are two schools that offer primary aged children boarding. State boarding schools follow the National Curriculum and take the same exams as they would in a state school. They boast of high exam results. There are a mixture of schools that offer boarding – Grammar, Comprehensive, VA, VC, Academies, Community, Technology College and Sixth Forms. Special Educational Needs Schools

In Wales a pupil with SEN (Special Educational Needs) is entitled to receive a full-time education that is appropriate to their needs. This applies to children between the ages of 2 and 19 years old. This may be in a special school or a mainstream school. A pupil with special educational needs is defined as a pupil who has a significantly greater difficulty in learning that the majority of pupils of their age, or has a disability which means that they cannot make full use of the general educational facilities provided for pupils of their age. In a mainstream early years setting a child with SEN can be given extra help, this is arranged by the SENCO (Special Educational Needs CO-coordinator) Children’s special needs are usually met through their mainstream school, that’s the central principle of the Code of Practise for the rights of children. Unless the parent indicates another preference, your LEA (Local Education Authority) must aim to keep your child in a mainstream school. In some cases the local authority will need to make a statutory assessment of a child’s educational needs. After the statutory assessment, the local authority may decide that the child needs special help. If this is the case, they must write a statement of special educational needs. A statement will describe a child’s needs and the specialist help and provision required to meet those needs. Sometimes these needs can be met by a mainstream school, but there are specialist school available which have the provisions to educate and care for SEN children. These schools have the facilities and trained staff to accommodate a large range of special educational needs.

Post 16 Options
Further Education
The minimum age at which a young person can leave learning is raised, requiring them to continue in education or training until: From summer 2013, the end of the academic year in which they turn 17, and from summer 2015, until their 18th birthday. This does not mean that they have to stay at school, they will be given a choice about how they want to participate post -16, which could be through full-time education, such as school or college. Work based learning, such as an apprenticeship or part-time education or training if they’re employed, self employed or volunteering for 20 or more hours a week. Sixth form in a School, Academy or College

AS and A levels are the traditional qualifications offered by schools and colleges for 16-19 year olds. They are highly valued by universities and employers and focus on academic subjects, although some are work related. AS levels can be taken as a stand- alone qualification, or as the first part of an A level course. AS levels are completed at the end of Year 12 . A2 exams and coursework are added on to an AS level at the end of year 13, bringing it up to A level standard. A level results are the gateway to most university and college courses. International Baccalaureate

The International Baccalaureate is a challenging and well rounded programme of education for 16-19 year old students. It’s a internationally recognised course, followed by students around the world. Until recently it was only taught in a minority of independent schools, but now it is an option in some state schools to. The IB course leads to a qualification called the IB Diploma, which is very well respected by universities and is also an advantage if a student is hoping to study overseas. The IB has a reputation for being demanding but very rewarding. It offers a broader programme of study than A levels, and encourages students to think independently, and to explore their creativity. The IB has a reputation for being demanding but very rewarding. It offers a broader programme of study than A levels, and encourages students to think independently, and to explore their creativity. Colleges , Schools and Academies Offer

Diplomas
Diplomas are a qualification for 14-19 year olds, although many students take them up at 16 years old. They’ve been introduced to provide more options for practical learning, and to encourage more young people to continue studying. Diplomas aim to provide work-orientated skills in a more creative way, so students get practical training and benefit from work experience. There is less classroom based learning than with A levels. Diplomas are ideal if a young person has an idea of the area they’d like to work in, and they would enjoy practical learning in a real world setting. Diplomas aim to give students a wide range of future options. A student could go on to a job, to future training, or with an advanced diploma go on to university. National Vocational Qualifications

NVQs offer practical, work related tasks and goals. If a young person knows what job they’d like to do and wants to move straight in to the world of work and NVQ could be the right choice for them. NVQs are available in more than 1,000 subjects, including childcare, plumbing, hairdressing, management, catering, construction and IT. NVQs can be based in a college or school or work environment, or a combination of two. They are achieved tough training and assessment, which is normally on-the-job observation. Assessors sign off units when candidates are ready. BTECs

BTEC qualifications are work related qualifications, which are broader than NVQs. They’re designed for young people interested in a particular sector or industry, but are not sure which job they’d like to do. They’re usually taken after 16 years old. Both NVQs and BTECs are designed to lead to either a job or further study. Your child can also progress through different levels of ability to improve their grasp of the chosen subject. High-level qualifications in BTECs and NVQs can lead to a professional qualification, and can also be a route into higher education, such as a Higher National Certificate or a Higher National Diploma.

Apprenticeships
The Welsh Government believes in and supports Apprenticeships in Wales as they fuel the future essential skills base of our nation. Apprenticeships in Wales help to inspire success in the individual and bring huge benefits to the workplace. They currently offer a number of initiatives to encourage employers to recruit more apprentices. One of the most popular is the Young Recruits Programme. This is an all Wales programme that provides funding to employers offering high quality apprenticeship programmes who recruit and train additional young apprentices. Apprenticeships in Wales are open to everyone, whether you are a young learner, or want to change your career pathway.  You can learn on the job and get extra skills from a training provider. You`ll share your learning between college or a training provider and working in your employer’s business, so you`ll gain both qualifications and the experience to back them up. There are three types of Apprenticeships:

* Foundation Apprenticeship
* Apprenticeship
* Higher Apprenticeship
There are three different types because different jobs need different levels of qualifications, some higher than others. When you look at the vacancies you will see the different levels and what they include. They normally last between two and three years. This can depend on the type of apprenticeship and the level of qualification you are working towards. There are 150 different apprenticeship routes available. Every apprentice follows a programme of study that is approved. That means that you will gain a recognised qualification. There are over 150 Lots of different jobs.  In the past apprenticeships were generally in trades like construction and engineering but now they are in any type of work.  Your employer will decide how they want you to be trained to do their work. These are some of the ways apprentices are trained: * On the job

* At college which could be full-time or part-time
* At a training centre which you could attend once a week or in blocks of a few days or weeks. By the end of your apprenticeship you will have the qualifications, skills and experience which match exactly what your employer wants. It also makes you far more employable when you want or need to move on. Higher Education

Universities
A university is an institution of higher education and research which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects. Higher education in Wales is offered mainly through Wales's 8 universities - higher education institutions - plus the Open University in Wales. It is also offered at a number of further education colleges.  The typical first degree offered at Welsh universities is the Bachelor's degree, typically taking three years to complete full-time. Some institutions offer an undergraduate Master's degree as a first degree, typically lasting four years. During a first degree students are known as undergraduates. Some universities offer a vocationally based Foundation degree, typically two years in length. Higher education institutions are private bodies which are independent of government. They receive their income from a number of sources, including from student fees, through research projects and by generating business. However, they also receive a portion of their income from public funds.

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