1.1 Identify the main types of state and independent schools. There are many different types of schools in the education sector. There are state schools which are funded by the local authorities and are also known as mainstream schools. They all have to follow the national curriculum and include Community schools, Voluntary schools of which there are 2 types, controlled and aided, Foundation and Trust schools and also Specialist schools. There are other types of schools too such as independent schools and academies which are either funded by the parents or by sponsors and do not have to follow the National Curriculum. Free schools are also available and are a bit of a mixture.
1.2 Describe the characteristics of the different types of schools in relation to educational stage(s) and school governance. The above types of school all have different characteristics in relation to education and governance, for example;
Community schools follow the national curriculum, are state funded and ran solely by the Local Education Authority (LEA). The schools governing body is responsible for the day to day running of the school and but the staff are employed by the Local Authority and the land and buildings of the school are also owned by the Local Authority. The LEA also decides which admissions criteria to use if the school has more applicants than places. The criteria could include if you live in the area of the school, if the child has any siblings at the school or if the child has a disability which makes travelling to a remote school difficult. Community schools also help to develop strong links with the community by offering the use of their facilities and providing services i.e. childcare and adult learning programmes and the Local Authority also provides support services, for example, psychological and special educational needs services.
There are two types of voluntary schools, Controlled or Aided. Voluntary aided schools can be also known as religious or faith schools although any religion is welcome. In a voluntary aided school the land and buildings are owned by a charity which is more often than not a religious organisation such as a church. They are funded by both the governing body and by charity along with the LEA which also provide support services. They are run by their own governing body but they do have to follow the national curriculum. With Voluntary controlled schools the land and buildings are also usually owned by a charity such as a church but they are run and funded by the local authority which employ the staff and also provide support services. Voluntary controlled school have to follow the national curriculum too.
Foundation and Trust schools are state funded schools but are run by their own governing body although they both follow the national curriculum. The land and buildings will also be owned by the governing body or a charitable foundation and receive extra support from charitable trust that is made up of partners e.g. business or educational charities who for the benefit of the school work together. The governing body determines the admissions policy but it is in consultation with the local education authority. Any maintained school that is a primary, secondary or special school can become a trust school and will remain local authority maintained.
Specialist schools are usually secondary schools where children who have a statement of special educational needs (SEN) can and usually are educated in provided the school has the suitable provisions. These types of schools can also apply for a specialist status to develop more specialised subjects such as arts or languages which the government funds. Specialist schools still follow the National Curriculum and are state funded however not all schools for pupils with SEN are maintained by the local authority and can be funded by fees that are paid by the parents or charitable trust funds.
Independent schools are schools that are not maintained by the local authority and they are independent in their finances and governance. Independent schools are funded by a combination of tuition fees that are paid by parents and income from investments, gifts and charitable endowments. Independent schools do not have to follow the National Curriculum and the admissions policy is determined and administered by the head teacher along with the governing body. All independent schools have to register with the department for education so that they can be monitored by the Independent Schools Inspectorate.
Academies are publicly funded schools that are set up by sponsors from a wide range of backgrounds such as local business, charities and faith bodies to provide first class education as they can decide the best way to use their budget in the best interest of the students. Academies do not need to follow the National Curriculum and can also determine the length of their own school terms and amount of schooling days
Free schools are much like an academy school but they are for all abilities and talents and state funded. Free schools are being set up in response to a demand in local areas where there are not enough places in mainstream schools. They do not have to follow the National Curriculum but still have to meet rigorous standards and are subject to the same Ofsted inspections as all state schools