Chapter 22 – Knee Injuries
The knee is a complex joint which can flex and extend for movement and is a weight bearing joint. The knee is part of a kinetic chain directly affected by motions and forces occurring and transmitted from the foot, ankle, and lower leg. The knee then transmits forces to the thigh, hip, pelvis, and spine.
The knee is has four major ligaments which controls stability. The medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) are on the sides of the knee and prevent the joint from sliding sideways. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) form an "X" on the inside of the knee and prevent the knee from sliding back and forth. These limitations on knee movement allow the knee to concentrate the forces of the muscles on flexion and extension.
The knee also has two shock-absorbing pieces of cartilage called menisci that sit on the top surface of the tibia. The menisci allow the femoral condyle to move on the tibial surface without friction.
Range of Motion
* Loss of motion is likely from:
* Effects of Injury
* Trauma of Surgery
* Effects of immobilization
* Ligaments do not heal completely for 18-24 months so waiting is not an option * Early range of motion can minimize harmful changes
* Controlled movement should be initiated early and based on patient tolerance and healing constraints Exercises
* Active assistive knee slides: use good leg supporting injured knee to regain flexion and extension * Wall slides to regain flexion and extension
* Active assistive knee slides on wall
* Knee extension with foot support (towel) regain extension (flex knee towards floor) * Knee extension in prone with ankle weight to regain extension (on stomach) * Groin stretches
* Kneeling thrusts
* Knee extensors stretch
* Side-lying knee extensor stretch with sports cord
* Knee flexor...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document