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Topics: Climate
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Russian German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, German climatologist Rudolf Geiger collaborated with Köppen on changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes referred to as the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system. The system is based on the concept that native vegetation is the best expression of climate. Thus, climate zone boundaries have been selected with vegetation distribution in mind. It combines average annual and monthly temperatures and precipitation, and the seasonality of precipitation.[2]:200–1
Contents [hide]
1 Scheme
1.1 GROUP A: Tropical/megathermal climates
1.2 GROUP B: Dry (arid and semiarid) climates
1.3 GROUP C: Mild Temperate/mesothermal climates
1.4 GROUP D: Continental/microthermal climate
1.5 GROUP E: Polar climates
2 Criticisms of the Köppen scheme
3 Trewartha climate classification scheme
4 World Map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification for the period 1951–2000
5 Other maps
6 See also
7 References
8 External links
8.1 Climate records
Scheme[edit]

The Köppen climate classification scheme divides climates into five main groups, each having several types and subtypes. Each particular climate type is represented by a 2 to 4 letter symbol.
GROUP A: Tropical/megathermal climates[edit]
Tropical climates are characterized by constant high temperature (at sea level and low elevations) — all twelve months of the year have average temperatures of 18 °C (64 °F) or higher. They are subdivided as follows:
Tropical rainforest climate (Af):[2]:205–8 All twelve months have average precipitation of at least 60 mm (2.4 in). These climates usually occur within 5–10° latitude of the equator. In some eastern-coast areas, they may extend to as much as 25° away from the equator. This climate is



References: ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q McKnight, Tom L; Hess, Darrel (2000). "Climate Zones and Types". Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-020263-0. Jump up ^ Linacre, Edward; Bart Geerts (1997). Climates and Weather Explained. London: Routledge. p. 379. ISBN 0-415-12519-7. Jump up ^ "Iceland Met office: Monthly Averages for Reykjavik". Iceland Met Office. 2012. Retrieved on January 4, 2013. Jump up ^ Akin, Wallace E. (1991). Global Patterns: Climate, Vegetation, and Soils. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 52. ISBN 0-8061-2309-5. World Map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification for the period 1951–2000 Global climate maps, using Köppen classification (FAO, 1999)

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