Abstract word: a word that identifies an idea or feeling as opposed to a concrete object Audience: the person or persons with whom you are communicating. Communication: the process of sending and receiving messages. Concrete word: a word that identifies something the senses can perceive. Connotation: the subjective or emotional feeling associated with a word. Denotation: The literal, dictionary meaning of a word.
E-mail: a message transmitted electronically over a computer network most often connected by cable, telephone lines, or satellites. Euphemism: an inoffensive expression used in place of an expression that may offend or suggest something unpleasant. Feedback: the receiver`s reaction or response to a message.
Filter: The mental process of perceiving stimuli based on one`s knowledge, experience, and viewpoints. Formal communication network: the transmission of prescribed information through downward, upward, horizontal and cross-channel routes. Informal communication network: the transmission of information through nonofficial channels within the organization, also called the grapevine. Jargon: the technical terminology used within specialized groups. Letter: a written message mailed to someone outside the organization. Medium: the form of a message – for example, a memo, or telephone call. Memo: a written message sent to someone within the organization. Message: the information (either verbal or nonverbal) that is communicated. Noise: environmental or competing elements that distract one`s attention during communication. Nonverbal message: a nonwritten and nonspoken signal consisting of facial expressions, gestures, voice qualities, and the like. Report: an orderly and objective presentation of information that assist in decision making and problem solving. Slang: an expression, often short-lived, that identifies with a specific group people. Stimulus: an event that creates within an individual the need to communicate. Verbal message: a message comprising spoken or written words. Website: the location of one or more pages of related information that is posted on the World Wide Web and is accessed via the Internet.
Groupthink: is a barrier to communication that results from an overemphasis on group cohesiveness, which stifles opposing ideas and the free flow of information. Ethnocentrism: The belief that one`s own cultural group is superior Ethics: Rules of conduct
Team: a group of individuals who depend on one another to accomplish a common objective. Chapter 3
Agenda: an ordered list of topics to be considered at a meeting, along with the name of the person responsible for each topic. Minutes: an official record of the proceedings of a meeting that summarizes what was discussed and what decisions were made. Parliamentary procedure: written rules of order that permit the efficient transaction of business in meetings. Chapter 4
Audience analysis: identification of the needs, interest, and personality of the receiver of a communication. Brainstorming: jotting down ideas, facts, possible leads, and anything else that might be helpful in constructing a message. Drafting: composing a preliminary version of a message.
Editing: the stage of revision that ensures that writing conforms to standard English. Free writing: writing continuously for 5 to 10 minutes without stopping as a means of generating a large quantity of material that will be revised later. Mind mapping: generating ideas for message content by first writing the purpose of the message in the center of a page and circling it and then writing possible points to include, linking each one to either the purpose or to another point; also called clustering. Organization: the sequence in which a topics are presented in a message Revising: the process of modifying the content and style of a draft go increase its effectiveness. Writer`s block: the inability to focus one`s attention on the writing process and to draft a message.
Active voice: the sentence form in which the subject performs the action expressed by the verb. Cliché: an expression that has become monotonous through overuse. Complex sentence: a sentence that has one independent clause and at least one dependent clause. Compound sentence: a sentence that has two or more independent clauses. Dangling expression: any part of a sentence that does not logically connect to the rest of the sentence. Expletive: an expression such as there is or it has been that begins a clause for which pronoun has no antecedent.(förgående) Mechanics: Those elements I communication
Nondiscriminatory language: language that treats everyone equally, making no unwarranted assumptions about any group of people. Parallelism: using similar grammatical structure to express similar ideas. Passive voice: the sentence form in which the subject receives the action expressed by the verb. Platitude: a trite, obvious statement.
Receiver benefits: the advantage a reader would derive from granting the writer`s request of from accepting the writer`s decision. Redundancy: the unnecessary repetition of an idea that has already been expressed or intimated. Simple sentence: a sentence that has one independent clause. Style: the manner in which an idea is expressed.
Tone: the writer`s attitude toward the reader and the subject of the message. “You” attitude: a viewpoint that emphasizes what the reader wants to know and how the reader will be affected by the message.
Adjustment letter: a letter written to inform a customer of the action taken in response to the customer`s claim letter. Claim letter: a letter from the buyer to the seller, seeking some type of action to correct a problem with the seller’s product or service. Direct organizational plan: a plan which the major purpose of the message is communicate first, followed by any needed explanation. Form letter: a letter with standardized wording that is sent to different people. Goodwill messages: a message that is sent strictly out of a sense of kindness and friendliness. Indirect organizational plan: a plan which the reasons or rationales are presented first, followed by the major idea. Resale: information that reestablishes a customer`s confidence in the product purchased or in the company that sold the product.
Central selling theme: the major reader benefit that is introduced early and emphasized throughout a sale letter. Derived benefit: the benefit a potential customer would receive from using a product or service. Rhetorical question: a question asked strictly to get the reader thinking about the topic; a literal answer is not expected. Chapter 8
Buffer: a neutral and supportive opening statement designed to lessen the impact of negative news. Chapter 10
Conclusion: the answer to the research questions raised in the introduction to a report. Direct quotation: the exact word of another.
Documentation: giving credit to another person for his or her words or ideas that you have used. Executive summary: a condensed version of the report body; also called an abstract or synopsis. Generic heading: a report heading that identifies only the topic of a section without givinh the conclusion. Paraphrase: a summary or restatement of a passage in one`s own words. Plagiarism: using another person`s words or ideas without giving proper credit. Talking heading: a report heading that identifies not only the topic of the report section but also the major conclusion. Transmittal document: a letter or memorandum that conveys the finished report to the reader.