Today we call this role detention, the part of corrections that takes place before conviction and the imposition of sentence.
The fee system endured for several hundred years.
Today we have tuberculosis, hepatitis, and HIV; early English jails had gaol fever (typhus), pneumonia, small pox, starvation and a host of other ailments related to malnourishment, no medical care, and infectious diseases that spread rapidly in close quarters.
Linda Zupan called the medieval English jail a dumping ground for social outcasts, misfits, and those whom no care options existed at the time, such as the insane and the diseased, particularly lepers.
The most influential colonial jail, Philadelphia’s Walnut Street Jail, considered the birthplace of the penitentiary regimen, was closed in 1835 and eventually completely demolished.
Also excluded are state-operated jails.
Juveniles are generally housed in separate detention centers or detention homes or halls, but some facing adult trials or living in rural areas where juvenile facilities are not available will be confined in adult jails.
These first-generation jails practiced little classification of inmates; a middle aged businessman arrested for traffic violations might be thrown into a bullpen with murders and rapists who had been in jail for years.
These second generation jails were designed to provide indirect surveillance of inmates by jailers who watched from glassed-in control booths.
Many of the newer, larger urban jails now apply the principles of direct supervision are called third-generation (or new-generation) jails.
Hans Mattick, in his influential research of the 1960’s and 1970’s, referred to jail administration in this era as guided by the principle of custodial convenience, defined as “everyone who can, takes the easy way out and makes only the minimal effort.”
Cooks County’s Special Operations Response Team (SORT) was accused of raiding a maximum- security cellblock for the