There are three fundamental component areas of human resource development (HRD): individual development (personal), career development (professional), and organizational development. The importance of each component will vary from organization to organization according to the complexity of the operation, the criticality of human resources to organizational efficiency, and the organization's commitment to improved human resources. But all three have one focus—individual performance improvement. Since individual performance improvement is the heart of an HRD program, HRD can be described as the "area of congruence" among the three components:
INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT Individual development refers to the development of new knowledge, skills, and/or improved behaviors that result in performance enhancement and improvement related to one's current job (training). Learning may involve formal programs, but is most often accomplished through informal, on-the-job training activities.
CAREER DEVELOPMENT Career development focuses on providing the analysis necessary to identify the individual interests, values, competencies, activities, and assignments needed to develop skills for future jobs (development). Career development includes both individual and organizational activities. Individual activities include career planning, career awareness, and utilizing career resource centers. Organizational activities include job posting systems, mentoring systems, career resource center development and maintenance, using managers as career counselors, providing career development workshops and seminars, human resource planning, performance appraisal, and career pathing programs.
ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Organizational development is directed at developing new and creative organization solutions to performance problems by enhancing congruence among the organization's structure, culture, processes, and strategies within the human