Topics: Kerala, India, Kerala model Pages: 12 (3681 words) Published: December 24, 2014
Kerala /ˈkɛrə[unsupported input]ə/ regionally referred to as Keralam(കേരളം ), is a state in the south-west region of India on the Malabar coast. It was formed on 1 November 1956 as per the States Reorganisation Act by combining various Malayalam-speaking regions. Spread over 38,863 km2 (15,005 sq mi) it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and north east, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 census, Kerala is the twelfth largest state by population and is divided into 14 districts. Malayalam is the most widely spoken and official language of the state. The state capital is Thiruvananthapuram, other major cities include Kochi,Kozhikode,Kannur,Kollam, and Thrissur. The region was a prominent spice exporter from 3000 BCE to 3rd century. The Chera Dynasty was the first powerful kingdom based in Kerala, though it frequently struggled against attacks from the neighbouring Cholas and Pandyas. During the Chera period, Kerala remained an international spice trading center. Later, in the 15th century, the lucrative spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, and eventually paved the way for the European colonisation of the whole of India. After independence, Travancore and Cochin joined the Republic of India and Travancore-Cochin was given the status of a state. Later, the state was formed in 1956 by merging the Malabar district, Travancore-Cochin (excluding four southern taluks), and the taluk ofKasargod, South Kanara. Geography

The state is wedged between the Lakshadweep Sea and the Western Ghats. Lying between north latitudes 8°18' and 12°48' and east longitudes 74°52' and 77°22',[91] Kerala experiences the humidequatorial tropic climate. The state has a coast of 590 km (370 mi)[92] and the width of the state varies between 11 and 121 km (22–75 miles).[93] Geographically, Kerala can be divided into three climatically distinct regions: the eastern highlands; rugged and cool mountainous terrain, the central mid-lands; rolling hills, and the western lowlands; coastal plains.[94] The state is located at the extreme southern tip of the Indian subcontinent and lies near the centre of the Indian tectonic plate; hence, it is subject to comparatively low seismic and volcanic activity.[95] Pre-Cambrian and Pleistocene geological formations compose the bulk of Kerala's terrain.[96][97] A catastrophic flood in Kerala in 1341 CE drastically modified its terrain and consequently affected its history; it also created a natural harbor for spice transport.[98] Climate[edit]

Southwest Monsoon Clouds over Alappuzha
With around 120–140 rainy days per year,[116]:80 Kerala has a wet and maritime tropical climate influenced by the seasonal heavy rains of thesouthwest summer monsoon and northeast winter monsoon.[117] Around 65% of the rainfall occurs from June to August corresponding to the southwest monsoon, and the rest from September to December corresponding to northeast monsoon.[117] Southwest monsoon; The moisture-laden winds, on reaching the southernmost point of the Indian Peninsula, because of its topography, become divided into two parts: the "Arabian Sea Branch" and the "Bay of Bengal Branch".[118] The "Arabian Sea Branch" of the Southwest Monsoon first hits the Western Ghatsin Kerala,[119] thus making the area the first state in India to receive rain from the Southwest Monsoon.[120][121] Northeast monsoon: The distribution of pressure patterns is reversed during this season and the cold winds from North India pick up moisture from the Bay of Bengal and precipitate it in the east coast of peninsular India.[122][123] In Kerala, the influence of the northeast monsoon is seen in southern districts only.[124] Kerala's rainfall averages 3,107 mm (122 in) annually. Some of Kerala's drier lowland regions average only 1,250 mm (49 in); the mountains of eastern Idukki district receive more than 5,000 mm (197 in) of orographic precipitation: the...
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