Kazakhstan is located in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. With an area of about 2,717,300 square kilometers, Kazakhstan is more than twice the combined size of the other four Central Asian states, or about twice the size of Alaska. The country borders Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Kyrgyzstan to the south; Russia to the north; Russia and the Caspian Sea to the west; and China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region to the east.
Kyrgyzstan is a small, mountainous, landlocked country in the heart of Central Asia lying between 390 and 430 N and 690 and 800 E, covering 198 000 kms2, with a mixed ethnic population of under 4 500 000. The country is bounded to the north by Kazakstan, to the south by China and Tajikistan and to the west by Uzbekistan, and is almost entirely mountainous with only 7% of the land area suitable for arable agriculture. Together with Tajikistan, it is among the poorest of the former Soviet Union republics.
Plant life in Tajikistan varies by region. Vegetation on the steppes includes drought-resistant grasses and low shrubs. Vast fields of wild poppies and tulips grow on the steppes where they rise into the foothills. The mountain slopes are covered with dense forests of coniferous trees, such as spruce. The mountains also contain grassy meadows, where wildflowers such as wild iris and edelweiss bloom in summer. Ancient forests of wild walnut trees are found on the lower mountain slopes.
The relief and climate plays an important role in the formation of Azerbaijan’s top-soil. As a result of the influence of these factors soil on the territory of Azerbaijan Republic are located in the vertical zones. Republican soils are of 25 types, and divided into 60 sub-types. Chestnut (gray-brown) soils in the republic spread between 400-800 m. of elevations. The amount of humus in these soil is 2,5-3,5%. In Greater and Lesser Caucasus Mountains, in the Ganja-Gazakh and Mil-Garabakh plains, in Ajinohur and...
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