Kazakh Ablai Khan University Of International

Topics: Literature, Social class, 19th century Pages: 5 (1818 words) Published: November 19, 2014
Kazakh Ablai Khan University of International Relationships and World Languages

Theme: “Critical Realism”

Done by: 420 group
Umirzhanova Sevara

Almaty 2014

I Introduction
II Main part
English critical realism
Features of critical realism
The achievements of the critical realists
Charles Dickens's Novels
Realism in the English Novel
III Conclusion
In mid and late 19th century, appeared a new literary trend __ critical realism. English critical realism of the 19th century flourished in the forties and in the early fifties. The critical realists described with much vividness and artistic skill the chief traits (characteristics) of the English society and criticized the capitalist system from a democratic viewpoint. It found its expressions in the form of novel. The greatest English realist of the time was Charles Dickens. With striking force and truthfulness, he creates pictures of bourgeois civilization, showing the misery and sufferings of the common people. Another critical realist was William Makepeace Thackeray. His novels are mainly a satirical portrayal of the upper strata of society. Others are Bronte sisters, Elizabeth Gaskell, George Eliot, and Thomas Hardy. The novelists exposed and criticized the corrupted society mercilessly. They are generally known as critical realists. The English critical realists of the 19th century not only gave a satirical portrayal of the bourgeoisie and all the ruling classes, but also showed profound sympathy for the common people. In their best works, the greed and hypocrisy of the upper classes are contrasted with the honesty and good-heartedness of the obscure "simple people" of the lower classes. Hence humor and satire abound in the English realistic novels of the 19th century. The humor is often used to stress the fine qualities of the positive characters. At the same time, bitter satire and grotesque is used to expose the seamy side of the bourgeois society. Critical realism reveals the corrupting influence of the rule of cash upon human nature. Here lies essentially democratic and humanistic character of critical realism.  But the critical realists did not find a way to eradicate the social evils they knew so well. They did not realize the necessity of changing the bourgeois society through conscious human effort. They were unable to find a good solution to the social contradictions. Their works do not point to revolution but rather evolution or reformism. They often start with a powerful exposure of the ugliness of the bourgeois world in their works, but their novels usually have happy endings or an impotent compromise at the end. Here we see the strength and the weakness of critical realism. What is the major contribution made by critical realists in the 19th  century Age? ___The major contribution made by the 19th century critical realists is their perfection of the novel. Like the realists of the 18th century, the 19th century critical realists made use of the form of novel for full and detailed representations of social and political events, and of the fate of individuals and of whole social classes. However, the realistic novels of the 19th century went a step further than those of the 18th century in that they not only pictured the conflicts between individuals who stood for definite social strata, but also showed the broad social conflicts over and above the fate of mere individuals. Their artistic representation of vital social movements such as Chartism, and their vivid description of the dramatic conflicts of the time make the 19th century realistic novel "the epic of the bourgeois society". The features

     The thoughts firstly appeared in France in the 1830s and spread to Europe and America. It describes, analyses and discloses and criticizes the reality.         (1) Reflects the reality objectively,...
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