Topics: Pakistan, Kargil War, Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 Pages: 7 (2256 words) Published: January 23, 2013
Table of Contents
1.1 Background to the Problem2
1.1.2 Conflict Chronology3
1.2 Problem Statement5
1.3 Objectives of the Study6
1.4 Research Questions6
1.5 Hypothesis6
1.6 Justification of the Study7
1.7 Delimitations7
1.8 Limitations7
1.9 Organisation of the Study8

1.1 Background to the Problem
The Kashmir territorial dispute between India and Pakistan is among the modern world’s longest running conflicts. Since 1947, the region has witnessed a recurring series of unstable confrontations. South Asia as a result has being widely considered one of the most dangerously unstable and crisis-prone regions. Three major wars, in 1947-48, 1965, 1971 and a limited war in 1999 have been fought over Kashmir. Currently crisis still escalates in Kashmir and if the problem remains unresolved, a nuclear conflict could be triggered. Kashmir a Himalayan region bordering India, Pakistan and China is multi-ethnic, multi-religious, multi-cultural and multi-lingual in nature (Hasbrouck, 1995).The hostile relationship between India and Pakistan dates back to the period just after WWII, when the departing British decided to partition the newly independent India in 1947. According to Paul (2006) Muslim majority areas were to form the new republic of Pakistan since India was predominantly Hindu. At the time of the creation of these states however, the status of Kashmir which was a predominantly remote Muslim area ruled by monarchs known as Maharajas was left undetermined. Under the partition plan provided by the Indian Independence Act of 1947, Kashmir was free to accede to India or Pakistan. Its leader who in actual fact was Hindu, Hari Singh, wanted to stay independent but under pressure, eventually decided to accede to India, in return for military aid and a promised referendum. This triggered a war between India and Pakistan but after the United Nations arranged a ceasefire in July 1949, India ended up controlling about two-thirds of Kashmir and the latter most of the rest (Paul, 2006). Ever since that time Kashmir has been a flashpoint between the two countries. 1.1.2 Conflict Chronology

To understand the uneasiness and tenseness between India and Pakistan’s relations it is necessary to highlight the conflict chronology. After the commencement of the conflict due to Pakistan’s objection to Hari Singh’s signing of Kashmir over to India on the 21st of October in 1947, the 1950s saw a continuation of the stand-off between India and Pakistan. Though there were no major military conflicts, Pakistan continued to call for a referendum in the region. In 1954 India began building its nuclear capabilities (Pavkovic, 1999). This added another factor to the crisis between both countries. Pakistani government began aligning itself with other countries in order to gain support from the international community. It signed an agreement with the United States which stated that Washington would come to Pakistan’s aid in a time of war. India however practiced a policy of nonalignment, refusing to ally itself with any bloc or alliance especially those of the U.S. or Soviet Union (Washington Post, 2002). In a 2002 article by United States Institute of Peace (USIP), Pakistan in 1961 sought to improve Sino-Pakistan relations by voting at the UN General Assembly for the motion of restoration of China’s legal status in the United Nations. This strained relations with New Delhi as India and China were in the midst of border disputes themselves. Between 1962 and 1963, India and Pakistan reintroduced discussions on the status of Kashmir which were however unsuccessful. Violence amoung Hindus and Muslims increased in 1964 leading to massacres of Muslims in East India. This led to the second Indo-Pakistani War in 1965. The countries as detailed by Mason (2007) eventually agreed to a UN sponsored cease fire and on January 10, 1966, the Pakistani President Ayub Khan and Indian Prime...
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