Karl Marx

Topics: Karl Marx, Marxism, Communism Pages: 6 (2118 words) Published: August 4, 2013
Max Richardson

Max Richardson|
Karl Marx has changed the way we view social classes
Research Essay – Line 1 Global Relations: Big Ideas and You, Graeme Hansard|

Karl Marx has altered the perception of working men and social classes. Both a scholar and a political activist, Marx addressed political and social issues, and is known for his analysis of history and his prediction for the future of the working class. The interpretations of his theories, particularly those on political economy, have in the course of history generated decades of debate, inspired revolutions and cast him as both devil and angel in political and academic circles. Early Life

Karl Marx was born in Trier, Germany a small town close to the Luxemburg border. His paternal family were all rabbis and practiced Judaism [2]. Karl’s father Hershel was a lawyer, though when Karl was born, the Mayor of Trier insisted that Karl be baptised as either a Catholic or Protestant. If Hershel has baptised Karl as a Jew he faced having his law accreditation revoked.[2]

Karl was privately educated until he reached university. He travelled north, to the city of Bonn and studied law at Bonn University. While Marx was at Bonn, he became engaged to Jenny von Westphalen, daughter of Baron von Westphalen, a man known for interesting Marx in Saint – Simonian politics. He studied at Bonn for a year before moving to the highly acclaimed Berlin University in 1836. When Marx was studying law at Berlin, he wanted to combine his two favourite subjects, law and philosophy. His passion for philosophy led him to make the statement that “Without philosophy, nothing could be accomplished” ([₄] pg 23)

Young Hegelians
While at Berlin University, he joined the ‘Young Hegelians’ group. (i.Studies.com (2008)) examines that the Young Hegelians were an intellectual group whose common theme was the ongoing application of Hegel's dialectical method rather than acceptance of Hegel's philosophical conclusions. The Young Hegelians criticized established societies, politics, and religion from a leftist perspective. After a while in the group, Marx realised that he didn’t agree with what Hegel has idealised and began to create his own ideas. Newspapers/Journals

Marx moved to Cologne in 1842, where he became a journalist, writing for radical newspaper Rheinische Zeitung (Rhineland News), expressing his early views on socialism and his ever growing interest in economics. He heavily criticised right-wing European governments as well as figures in the socialist movements whom he thought were ineffective. The paper attracted the attention of the Prussian government censors, who checked each issue for potentially seditious material before it was sent to the printing press for publication[6]. While working for the paper, Marx remarked that "Our newspaper has to be presented to the police to be sniffed at, and if the police nose smells anything un-Christian or un-Prussian, the newspaper is not allowed to appear." After the paper published an article heavily criticised the Russian monarchy, Tsar Nicholas I requested that the Rheinische Zeitung be banned. Shortly after this statement was issued Prussia's government shut down the paper in 1843. It was through these newspapers and journals, that Marx became fascinated with the status of the working class man and their fight for equality. He began to create his opinion and ideas about how they could revolutionise the world they so desperately deserved.

It was difficult for Marx to find publishers because of his radical political views, so he moved to Cologne, which was known to house a strong liberal opposition movement [₃] .The liberal group the Cologne Circle, published a paper by Marx defending the freedom of the press in their newspaper The Rhenish Gazette. In 1842 he was made the editor of the paper. In Cologne, Marx met Moses Hess, a radical who...

Bibliography: [₁]Deep Spirits. "Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels » Revolutionaries « Great People." Deep Spirits: Quest for Truth, Exploration of Beauty & Magic of Life. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 May 2013. <http://www.deepspirits.com/great-people/marx-engels/
[₂]European Graduate School. "Karl Heinrich Marx - Biography." The European Graduate School. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 May 2013. <www.egs.edu/library/karl-marx/biography/ >.
[₃]Long, Malcolm . Marx & Beyond. Sydney: Australian Broadcasting Commission, 1973. Print
[₄]Marx, Karl , and Friedrich Engels. Communist Manifesto. London: Penguin Books, 2002. Print
[₅]McLellan, David. Karl Marx: The Legacy. London: British Broadcasting Corporation, 1983. Print
[₆]Pullen, Marian , Frances Vargo, and Sarah Waters. "Marx." Makers of History. London: Bloomsbury Books, 1989. 186-187. Print
[₇]Siva, A.K . "People who changed the world, Karl Marx (1818 - 1883)." Sulekha. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 May 2013. <creative.sulekha.com/people-who-changed-the-world-karl-marx-1818-1883_136109_blog>.
[₈]Spark Notes. "Spark Notes: The Communist Manifesto: Summary." Spark Notes. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 May 2013. <http://www.sparknotes.com/philosophy/communist/summary.html
[₉]Worsley, Peter . Marx and Marxism. New York: Ellis Horwood Limited, 1982. Print.
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