a Give an account of Kant’s ethical theory. (25 marks)
Start by setting the scene & explain that the theory is deontological and focused on the idea of a moral law. Explain that moral statements are a priori synthetic.
Explain Kant’s understanding of good will and duty and show that they are linked. More importantly you need to explain the categorical imperative and the three formulae. 1 Universalisability
2 People must be considered as ends in themselves
3 Kingdom of ends.
A good answer will include examples, either Kant’s own or simple alternatives. Immanuel Kant was an eighteenth century German philosopher whose moral views continue to be influential. He developed a deontological, absolute and objective ethical theory on the idea of moral law. Kant’s theory uses practical reason and looks at the argument before deciding what to do about the situation. It is described as being priori and synthetic (this meaning you don’t have to experience it to know what it means) and can be proven to be true or false without using experience. Kant believed in right and wrong based on reason, he relied on intuitions or facts. For freedom, Kant says you must be capable of exercising freedom or autonomy of will. For Kant’s Ethical Theory, only good will can be unconditional love. So for his theory, we humans must do our duty, which makes the will good. He says that duty is done for its own sake and not for any kind of benefit to our self. He says we know what is good by using reason. Kant says we have an obligation to do our duty; he calls this the categorical imperative. The categorical imperative involves making a moral decision from a sense of duty without any consideration of the outcome. His beliefs oppose that of moral relativism, in which a morally good act is entirely dependent on the circumstances or culture in which it takes place, instead believing in the necessity of a perfectly universalisable moral...
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