Kahulugan Ng Kagalingan

Topics: X-ray, Radiography, Medical imaging Pages: 5 (1224 words) Published: August 27, 2013
x-ray film composition
* The type of x-ray film most commonly used must have a flexible and thin transparent base coated on both sides with sensitive emulsion. An adhesive layer is coated on the base before adding the emulsion to provide maximum contact with the important emulsion layer. A supercoat or protective coating is then used to protect the sensitive emulsion surface. The outer protective coating is essential for protection of the film surface at the time of use in a film holder. Composed of different materials:

Single Emulsion- has no parallax effect
Protetive coating|
Emulsion|
Adhesive layer|
Base|
Adhesive Layer- attaches the layer film
Emulsion- active layer
Protective Layer- to protects the emulsion
Ttypes of X-ray Film
* The types of film availabale for diagnostic radiology are categorized as: * Screen film
* Direct exposure
* Single emulsion
* Dupliction
* Subtraction
* Mammography
* Dental
Double Emulsion- have a parallax effect
Protective coating |
Emulsion |
Adhesive Layer|
Base|
Adhesive Layer|
Emulsion|
Protective|

2 Most Important Layer
1. Emulsion
2. Base
* X-ray film was produced to be sensitive to blue violet light, and we reffered to it as blue sensitive film. In diagnostic radiology, radiogrpher use primarily blue sensitive and orthochromatic. Orthochromatic describe the type of film used in radiology, whbich is known as green sensitive. It is sensitive almost all colors in the spectrum, except red. Panchromatic is the term used to describe film that is used in photography because it is sensitive to all colors in the visible light spetrum. Sreen type of film

* Screen film requires flouresent light in addition to x-rays to provide optimal efficiency. This means that it should be used with intensifying screens which are found inside film holder. Screen type film has emulsion coated on both sides, which make it more effiecent. A negative aspect of the double emulsion is the parallax effect. In this, light enters from an angle affecting a particular spot on the emulsion and travels through the other side striking a spot not exactly corresponding to the opposit layer. The parallax effectresults in decreased resolution on the image. Screen film

* Most widely used in radiography before digital radiography area * Intended to bed used with one or two intensifying screen * More sensitive to light and less sensitive to x-ray
* Thinner than direct exposure film
* Require less development time
* Can be manually or automatically procssed
* Have eihter single or double emulsion coating
* Have parallax effect (light enter in particular part and travel to the other side) result in decreased resolution Direct exposure film
* Direct exposure film is designed specially for use without intensifying screen. This type of film is made for use with the direct exposure of x-ray photons. Direct exposure film has thicker emulsion, with an increased amount of silver halide crystals. Because direct exposure film also less sensitive to light, the flouresent light from the intensifying screen would be less effective. An increase in exposure factor is required with the use of this type of film compared with the use of screen film and intensifying screen it is recommended for use with low exposure examinations of thin body parts. Sil;ver halide crstal- active ingredient

* Also called non-screen film
* Intended to be used in cardboard holder instead of cassette without intensfying screen * Has single emulsion
* Significanly thicker that screen film
* Requires more development time
* Require more exposure and necessitate manual processing * Usually used in the intra oral dental radiography
* Most sharp in “detail” compared to screen film
Single emulsion film
* Single emulsion film has emulsion coated on one side of the base...
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