Just in time production (JIT)
Just in time is a ‘pull’ system of production, so actual orders provide a signal for when a product should be manufactured. Demand-pull enables a firm to produce only what is required, in the correct quantity and at the correct time. `Just-in-time' is a management philosophy and not a technique. It originally referred to the production of goods to meet customer demand exactly, in time, quality and quantity, whether the `customer' is the final purchaser of the product or another process further along the production line. It has now come to mean producing with minimum waste. "Waste" is taken in its most general sense and includes time and resources as well as materials.
JIT - Background and History
JIT is a Japanese management philosophy which has been applied in practice since the early 1970s in many Japanese manufacturing organisations. It was first developed and perfected within the Toyota manufacturing plants by Taiichi Ohno as a means of meeting consumer demands with minimum delays . Taiichi Ohno is frequently referred to as the father of JIT. Toyota was able to meet the increasing challenges for survival through an approach that focused on people, plants and systems. Toyota realised that JIT would only be successful if every individual within the organisation was involved and committed to it, if the plant and processes were arranged for maximum output and efficiency, and if quality and production programs were scheduled to meet demands exactly. JIT manufacturing has the capacity, when properly adapted to the organisation, to strengthen the organisation's competitiveness in the marketplace substantially by reducing wastes and improving product quality and efficiency of production. There are strong cultural aspects associated with the emergence of JIT in Japan. The Japanese work ethic involves the following concepts. Workers are highly motivated to seek constant improvement upon that which already exists. Although high...
References: Kiyoshi Suzaki, 1987, The New Manufacturing Challenge: techniques for continuous improvement, the Free Press, London.
Yasuhiro Monden, 1993, Toyota Production System: an integrated approach to Just-In Time. Second edition, Industrial Engineering and Management Press, Institute of Industrial Engineers, Norcross, Georgia.
Cheng TCE and Podolsky S, 1993, Just-in-Time Manufacturing - an introduction, Chapman and Hall, London.
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