Just In Time

Topics: Lean manufacturing, Toyota Production System, Muda Pages: 17 (3775 words) Published: December 20, 2014
Just in time (business)
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Corporate finance

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Discounts and allowances
Managerial finance
Financial accounting
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Balance sheet analysis
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Just in time (JIT) is a production strategy that strives to improve a business' return on investment by reducing in-process inventory and associated carrying costs. Just in time is a type of operations management approach which originated in Japan in the 1950s. It was adopted by Toyota and other Japanese manufacturing firms, with excellent results: Toyota and other companies that adopted the approach ended up raising productivity (through the elimination of waste) significantly.[1] To meet JIT objectives, the process relies on signals or Kanban (看板?, Kanban) between different points, which are involved in the process, which tell production when to make the next part. Kanban are usually 'tickets' but can be simple visual signals, such as the presence or absence of a part on a shelf. Implemented correctly, JIT focuses on continuous improvement and can improve a manufacturing organization's return on investment, quality, and efficiency. To achieve continuous improvement key areas of focus could be flow, employee involvement and quality. في الوقت المناسب (JUST IN TIME) (JIT) هي استراتيجية انتاج والتي تحاول جاهدة لتحسين الأعمال وذلك بتجقيق "العودة بالاستثمار " من خلال خفض المحزون في العملية ومايتعلق بها من التكاليف الدفترية , هذه الطريقة هي نوع من نهج إدارة العمليات والتي نشأت في اليابان في الخمسينيات 1950 والتي اعتمدت من قبل شركة تويوتا وشركات اخرى يابانية وحققت نتائج ممتازة . حيث أن شركة تويوتا والشركات الاخرى التي اعتمدت هذا المبدأ توصلت الى زيادة في الانتاجية ( من خلال القضاء على الهدر ) بشكل ملحوظ . [1] وللوصول الى أهداف JIT فان العملية تعتد على الاشارات أو "الكانبان" مابين النقاط المعتمدة في العملية والتي تخبر قسم الانتاج متى يقوم بالجزء التالي من العمل . الكانبان عادة هي "تذاكر" ولكنها يمكن أن تكون اشارات بصرية بسيطة ، مثلا مثل وجود أو عدم وجود قطعة على الرف تم استخدامها بشكل صحيح تماما . وتركز JIT على التحسين المستمر ويمكن أن تحسن من عودة المنظمة في الاستثمار الصناعي وكذلك الجودة والكفاءة . وللوصل الى التحسين المستمر فان المقاتيح الأساسية يمكن أن تكون التتدفق واشراك الموظفين والجودة .

JIT relies on other elements in the inventory chain as well. For instance, its effective application cannot be independent of other key components of a lean manufacturing system or it can "end up with the opposite of the desired result."[2] In recent years manufacturers have continued to try to hone forecasting methods such as applying a trailing 13-week average as a better predictor for JIT planning; however, some research demonstrates that basing JIT on the presumption of stability is inherently flawed.[3] كذلك تعتمد JIT على العناصر الأخرى في سلسلة المخزون وعلى سبيل المثال ، فان تطبيقها الفعال لا يمكن أن يكون مستقل عن غيره من المكونات الأساسية لنظام التصنيع الهزيل أو أنها يمكن أن " ينتهي مع عكس النتيجة المرجوة ". [ 2 ] في السنوات الأخيرة واصلت الشركات المصنعة محاولة صقل أساليب التنبؤ مثل تطبيق متوسط الاستجرار ​​13 أسبوعا باعتباره مؤشرا أفضل للتخطيط JIT . ومع ذلك ، توضح بعض البحوث أن تأسيس JIT على افتراض الاستقرار هو معيب بطبيعته . [3 ]

1 Philosophy
2 Transaction cost approach
3 Environmental concerns
4 Price change
5 Quality volatility
6 Supply stability
7 JIT implementation design
7.1 Effects
7.2 Benefits
7.3 Problems...

References: This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (March 2008)
2. A study of the Toyota Production System, Shigeo Shingo, Productivity Press, 1989, p 187
4. Alan Pilkington, “Manufacturing Strategy Regained: Evidence for the Demise of Best-Practice”, California Management Review, (1998) Vol. 41, No.1, pp.31–42.
5. Paul H. Selden (1997). Sales Process Engineering: A Personal Workshop. Milwaukee, WI: ASQ Quality Press. pp. 113–117.
6. Malakooti, Behnam (2013). Operations and Production Systems with Multiple Objectives. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-58537-5.
8. "Online NewsHour: Rising gas prices – April 30, 1996". Retrieved 2007-09-24.
9. "Story taken from Time magazine May 13, 1996 Volume 147, No. 20". Retrieved 2007-09-24.
Flinchbaugh, Jamie and Carlino, Andy (2006), The Hitchhiker 's Guide to Lean: Lessons from the Road, SME, ISBN 0-87263-831-6
Goldratt, Eliyahu M
Management Coaching and Training Services, (2006). The Just-In-Time (JIT) Approach. Retrieved June 19, 2006 from the World Wide Web: [1]
Ohno, Taiichi (1988), Toyota Production System: Beyond Large-Scale Production, Productivity Press, ISBN 0-915299-14-3
Ohno, Taiichi (1988), Just-In-Time for Today and Tomorrow, Productivity Press, ISBN 0-915299-20-8
Wadell, William, and Bodek, Norman (2005), The Rebirth of American Industry, PCS Press, ISBN 0-9712436-3-8
Waguespack, Kevin, and Cantor, Bryan (1996), "Oil inventories should be based on margins, supply reliability", Oil & Gas Journal, Vol 94, Number 28, 8 July 1996.
Womack, James P. and Jones, Daniel T. (2003), Lean Thinking: Banish Waste and Create Wealth in Your Corporation, Revised and Updated, HarperBusiness, ISBN 0-7432-4927-5.
Womack, James P., Jones, Daniel T., and Roos, Daniel (1991), The Machine That Changed the World: The Story of Lean Production, HarperBusiness, 2003, ISBN 0-06-097417-6.
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