JULIUS CAESAR (Drama)
1. 1. (d) Decius Brutus
2. (a) ambition
3. (c) arrogance
S O L U T I O N S S-57
2. (a) Calpurnia is terrified by unnatural and extraordinary things which she thinks portend danger to Caesar’s life. She persuades him not to leave house that day. Caesar turns a fatalist and overrules her. Then he boasts of his bravery. He dismisses her fear saying death is inevitable. Calpurnia feels sad. She tells him that he has allowed his better judgement to be swayed and over-powered by his rash confidence. For her it is misplaced over-confidence. He seems to have thrown cautious to the winds and ignored his personal safety. (b) Decius gives an interpretation that inflames Caesar’s ego. He asserts that it is his love for him that speaks thus. This love has over-shadowed his better judgment and discretion. On the other hand, Calpurnia merely pleads, requests and urges him not to leave house. Caesar is so impressed by the arguments of Decius that Calpurnia’s fear and apprehensions now appear to be quite groundless, rather foolish. (c) Antony is a practical politician. He finds his life in danger and asks the conspirators to kill him if they so desire. He addressed the conspirators as the noblest and most influential man of the present generation in Rome. He would prefer to die at their hands and lie beside Caesar than live for thousand years. Thus the skilful and practical politician that Antony is, tries to make peace with the conspirators by eulogising (praising) them. (d) By his skilful oratory Antony has aroused the anger and hatred of the mob against Brutus, Cassius and other conspirators. The mob plans to torch their houses with the burning sticks of wood from Caesar’s pyre. Pursued by such a hostile, furious and blood thirsty mob, Brutus and Cassius have no option but to run away from Rome to save their lives. Their fate is sealed. As they leave Rome, another Caesar—Octavius Caesar arrives in Rome to join Antony and have revenge on the conspirators. 3. Antony’s speech is more effective because it is a direct appeal to the passion and feelings of the people. He concentrates on the main charge of Brutus against Caesar that he was too ambitious. Antony cleverly reminds the people of the glorious wars and the captives whose ransoms filled the Roman treasury. At the Lupercal festival Caesar had thrice refused to accept the crown from Antony. This incident shows that he was not ambitious. He asks people why they are unwilling even to shed tears at his funeral. He stops cleverly claiming that he had become overcome with emotions. Then Antony plays on their emotions. He mentions a will which would show that Caesar was the best friend of the people. Mixed feelings of pity, curiosity and greed are now aroused in the mob’s hearts. They cry for the will. Antony refuses to read the will as that would incite them against the conspirators. He would not let them know that Caesar had left all his riches and property to the people. This only whets the curiosity of the mob. They insist to hear the will. Antony shows them the wounds of Caesar. This arouses pity for Caesar and fury against his murderers. Then he reads the will. The mob is now filled with fury and rush out to destroy the conspirators. Thus Antony’s speech is highly successful. WORKSHEET–109
1. (a) Antony speaks these lines to himself. These form the concluding part of his famous soliloquy. He is alone with the corpse (dead body) of Caesar. (b) The ‘foul deed’ refers to the murder of Caesar. The soul of Caesar will roam about in search of vengeance. With the authority of a monarch, he will cause destruction in these territories by fire, famine and civil war. (c) ‘Ate’ is the Greek goddess of revenge. She will come in hot haste from the hell. She will help Caesar’s spirit to take revenge. 2. (a) Calpurnia tries to convince Caesar of the impending danger to his life. Both heaven and earth have been...
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