He sent an army in China and that created a big scandal in France. He was called the Tankinois because the news of the retreat shook his government and forced him to quit. The French won allowing France to conquer the Gulf of Tonkin in China.
Jules Ferry was a proponent of colonization. Why?
The inferior race be civilized by the superior class (ethnocentrism). It is not racism by nature. It is a strange imperialism
He has a genuine feeling that France had a duty to dominate/ lead the rest the world. This is why the France and US are always in competition because they both consider that they need to lead the world. Both France and England had the same idea of civilizing Africans. Kipling, “The White Man’s Burden”. The White man has to go to Africa and civilize it. The French ruled in a much more direct way than the English way. The English were in the colonies for money while the French had a bigger idea of civilization. They tried to create an elite in every colony: Ecole Normale in Africa. The elites would then go to France and be sent back to Africa to civilize the rest of Africa. However, that created an adverse effect since the African elites analyzed the French arguments and used their return to Africa as a way to denounce the French system/ education.
Race in 19th century France: group of people not linked by color. Race was a feeling of belonging: the rural race. However, the term race is mostly associated with country: French, German, African race
Phrenology: a pseudoscience primarily focused on measurements of the human skull based on the concept that the brain is the organ of the mind. Therefore, from that theory, you could recognize a criminal, Jew etc.
He talks about arguments that led France to colonize: economic (export markets), humanitarian, civilization and political imperialism (take as much territory as you can to be a better country than England).
Colonization was also a way to distract the French from their