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This article is about the national hero of the Philippines. For other uses, see José Rizal (disambiguation).
It has been suggested that Species Named After Jose Rizal be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since December 2013. José Rizal
Jose rizal 01.jpg
José Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda
June 19, 1861
December 30, 1896 (aged 35)
Cause of death
Execution by firing squad
Rizal Park, Manila
Daet, Camarines Norte
Ateneo Municipal de Manila, University of Santo Tomas, Universidad Central de Madrid Organization
La Solidaridad, La Liga Filipina
Josephine Bracken (1896)
Francísco Rizal y Bracken (who died after birth)
Francisco Rizal Mercado (father)
Teodora Alonso (mother)
Jose rizal signature.svg
José Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda (June 19, 1861 – December 30, 1896), was a Filipino nationalist, novelist, poet, ophthalmologist, journalist, and revolutionary. He is widely considered the greatest national hero of the Philippines. He was the author of Noli Me Tángere, El Filibusterismo, and a number of poems and essays. He was executed on December 30, 1896 by a squad of Filipino soldiers of the Spanish Army. Contents [hide]
1 Family and early childhood
1.2 Birth and early childhood
3 Personal life, relationships and ventures
3.1 Association with Leonor Rivera
3.2 Relationship with Josephine Bracken
4 1890-1892: In Brussels and Spain
5 1892-1896: Return to Philippines
5.1 Exile in Dapitan
6 1894: Arrest and trial
8 Works and Writings
8.1 Novels and essays
8.4 Other works
9 Reactions after death
9.1 Retraction controversy
9.2 "Mi último adiós"
9.3 Later life of Bracken
9.4 Polavieja and Blanco
10 Criticism and Controversies
10.1 National Hero status
10.1.1 Made National Hero by Colonial Americans
10.1.2 Made National Hero by General Aguinaldo
10.2 References to Catholic church
10.3 Critiques of Books
10.4 Rizal's role in the Philippine revolution
12 Historical commemoration
13 Rizal in popular culture
13.1 Adaptation of his works
13.2 Biographic films
14 See also
15 Notes and references
17 Further reading
18 External links
Family and early childhood
Rizal was a 5th-generation patrilineal descendant of Domingo Lam-co (traditional Chinese: 柯儀南; simplified Chinese: 柯仪南; pinyin: Kē Yínán; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Kho Gî-lâm), a Chinese immigrant entrepreneur who sailed to the Philippines from Jinjiang, Quanzhou in the mid-17th century. Lam-co married Inez de la Rosa, a Sangley of Luzon.
Teodora Alonzo, mother of Dr. José Rizal
José Rizal also had Spanish and Japanese ancestors. His maternal grandfather was a half Spaniard engineer named Lorenzo Alberto Alonzo. His maternal great-great-grandfather was Eugenio Ursua, a descendant of Japanese settlers. In 1848, then Governor-General of the Philippines Jogienel Pajaron, issued a decree by which native Filipino and immigrant families were to adopt Spanish surnames from a list of Spanish family names. Although the Chino Mestizos were allowed to hold on to their Chinese surnames, Lam-co changed his surname to the Spanish "Mercado" (market), possibly to indicate their Chinese merchant roots. José's father Francisco adopted the surname Rizal (originally Ricial, "the green of young growth" or "green fields"), which was suggested to him by a provincial governor, or as José had described him, "a friend of the family." However, the name change caused confusion in the business affairs of Francisco, most of which were begun under the old name. After a few years, he settled on the name Rizal Mercado as a compromise, but usually just used the original surname...
References: ^ Nery, John (2011). "Revolutionary Spirit: Jose Rizal in Southeast Asia", pg. 240. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore. ISBN 978-981-4345-06-4.
^ a b Noli Me Tángere, translated by Soledad Locsin (Manila: Ateneo de Manila, 1996) ISBN 971-569-188-9.
^ José Rizal; José Rizal National Centennial Commission (1961). El filibusterismo (in Spanish). Linkgua digital. pp. 9. ISBN 978-84-9953-093-2.
^ Jose Rizal: Life, Works and Writings of a Genius, Writer, Scientist and National Hero. Quezon City: All-Nations Publishing Co., Inc. 1999. ISBN 971-642-070-6.
^ "Rizal y Alonso, José Protasio, 1861-1896". Virtual International Authority File (VIAF). Retrieved 18 May 2013.
^ Rizal 's rags-to-riches ancestor from South China. Retrieved February 18, 2007.
^ F. Zaide, Gregorio (1957). José Rizal: life, works, and writings. Villanueva. p. 5.
^ Parco de Castro, M.E.G. "Jose Rizal: A birthday wish list". The Varsitarian. Retrieved June 27, 2011.
^ a b c d Frank Laubach, Rizal: Man and Martyr (Manila: Community Publishers, 1936)
^ Witmer, Christoper (2001-06-02)
^ a b The Many-Sided Personality. José Rizal University. Retrieved January 10, 2007.
^ a b c d e f Kalaw, Teodoro."Epistolario Rizalino: 4 volumes, 1400 letters to and from Rizal". Bureau of Printing, Manila.
^ Zaide, Gregorio (1957). Rizal 's Life, Works and Writings. Manila, Philippines: Villanueva Book Store. pp. 43–44.
^ a b Cuizon, Ahmed (2008-06-21). "Rizal’s affair with 'la petite Suzanne '". Inquirer.net. Retrieved on 2012-09-20.
^ Harry Sichrovsky (1987). Ferdinand Blumentritt: an Austrian life for the Philippines : the story of José Rizal 's closest friend and companion. p. 39. ISBN 978-971-13-6024-5.
^ "Appendix II: Decree Banishing Rizal. Governor-General Eulogio Despujol, Manila, July 7, 1892." In Miscellaneous Correspondence of Dr. José Rizal / translated by Encarnacion Alzona. (Manila: National Historical Institute.)
^ Raul J
^ Epistolario Rizalino: 4 volumes, 1400 letters to and from Rizal, edited by Teodoro Kalaw (Manila: Bureau of Printing,1930–38)
^ Russell, Charles Edward; Rodriguez, Eulogio Balan (1923). The hero of the Filipinos: the story of José Rizal, poet, patriot and martyr. The Century co. p. 308.
^ Austin Coates, Rizal: Philippine Nationalist and Martyr (London: Oxford University Press, 1968) ISBN 0-19-581519-X
^ "Letters Between Rizal and his Family, #223"
^ Ricardo Roque Pascual, José Rizal Beyond the Grave (Manila: P. Ayuda & Co., 1962)
^ Ildefonso T
^ "Rizal 's Retraction: A Note on the Debate, Silliman Journal (Vol. 12, No. 2, April, May, June 1965), pages 168–183". Life and Writings of José Rizal. Retrieved September 9, 2009.
^ Rafael Palma, Pride of the Malay Race (New York: Prentice Hall, 1949)
^ a b Ambeth Ocampo (2008)
^ a b c Nicolas Zafra (1961). Historicity of Rizal 's Retraction. Bookmark.
^ Guerrero, León Maria III (1963). "The First Filipino: A Biography of José Rizal". National Historical Institute of The Philippines, Manila.
^ a b Gregorio Zaide (2003). Jose Rizal: Life, Works and Writings of a Genius, Writer, Scientist and National Hero. National Bookstore.
^ Molina, Antonio M. (1998). "Yo, José Rizal". Ediciones de Cultura Hispánica, Madrid.
^ "Uncovering Controversial Facts about José Rizal" (mariaronabeltran.com)
^ a b Marciano Guzman (1988)
^ a b Jesus Cavanna (1983). Rizal 's Unfading Glory: A Documentary History of the Conversion of Dr. Jose Rizal.
^ Javier de Pedro (2005) Rizal Through a Glass Darkly, University of Asia and the Pacific
^ "Evolution of Rizal 's Religious Thought".
^ (1950-01-06). "Joint Statement of the Catholic Hierarchy of the Philippines on the Book 'The Pride of the Malay Race '". CBCP (Catholic Bishop 's Conference of the Philippines) Documents. Retrieved on 2012-09-30.
^ Garcia, Ricardo P. (1964). "The Great Debate: The Rizal Retraction - Preface". R.P. Garcia Publishing Co., Quezon City.
^ Craig 1914, pp. 259-260
^ Ocampo, Ambeth (1990)
^ Almario, Manuel (31 December 2011). "Commentary, Rizal: ‘Amboy’ or home-made hero?". The Philippine Inquirer. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
^ Forbes, Cameron (1945). The Philippine Islands. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
^ Constantino, Renato (30 December 1969). "Rizal Day Lecture". Philippine Inquirer. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
^ Constantino, Renato (1980) , "Veneration without Understanding, Dissent and Counter-consciousness", pp. 125–145. Malaya Books, Quezon City .
^ "Aguinaldo 's Rizal Day Decree, 1898". Philippine Freemasons. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
^ "General Emilio Aguinaldo decrees December 30, 1898 as a national day of mourning". El Heraldo dela Revolucion. 25 December 1898. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
^ Zaide, Gregorio and Sonia (1999). Jose Rizal: Life, Works, and Writings of a Genius, Writer, Scientist and National Hero. Quezon City: All Nations publishign Co. Inc. ISBN 971-642-070-6.
^ Agoncillo, Teodoro (1990) , "History of the Filipino People (8th ed.)". Garotech Publishing Inc., Quezon City. ISBN 971-8711-06-6
^ Couttie, Bob (2007)
^ Rafael Palma (1949). "Pride of the Malay Race", pg. 367. Prentice Hall, New York.
^ Ambeth Ocampo (1990). "Rizal without the Overcoat". Anvil Publishing Co., Manila. ISBN 971-27-0043-7.
^ Miguel de Unamuno, "The Tagalog Hamlet" in Rizal: Contrary Essays, edited by D. Feria and P. Daroy (Manila: National Book Store, 1968).
^ a b José Rizal, El Filibusterismo (Ghent: 1891) chap.39, translated by Andrea Tablan and Salud Enriquez (Manila: Marian Publishing House, 2001) ISBN 971-686-154-0. (online text at Project Gutenberg)
^ Lua, Shirley (22 August 2011)
^ Quibuyen, A Nation Aborted: Rizal, American Hegemony, And Philippine Nationalism
^ Look, Wing, Kam (1997)
^ . Retrieved January 10, 2007.
^ Trillana III, Dr. Pablo S. "2 historical events led to birth of modern RP". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved June 11, 2007.
^ José Rizal (2007). The Reign of Greed. Echo Library. pp. 231. ISBN 978-1-4068-3936-4.
^ Anderson Benedict (2005). "Under Three Flags: anarchism and the anti colonial imagination". Verso Publication, London. ISBN 1-84467-037-6.
^ (2011-08-23). "Spot the Difference: Rizalista as Religious Cult vs Rizalistas in a Socio-Civic Org 'n". Ladies for Rizal Bonn Chapter. Retrieved on 2012-09-20.
^ Dennis Villegas (30 June 2011). " 'Saint ' Jose Rizal". Philippine Online Chronicles.
^ Peter Uetz, Jakob Hallermann, & Jiri Hosek. "Draco guentheri BOULENGER, 1885". The Reptile Database. Retrieved December 23, 2013.
^ Dr. Virchow 's obituary on Rizal, 1897
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